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|Features that Ought to be in Noted by Night
Three kinds of light used; white arc lamps, extensively behind banners and shields to flood facades of outer walls and Court of Four Seasons; warmer light of Mazda lamps in clear and colored globes; and searchlights concealed on tops of buildings trained on towers and on high groups of sculpture.
Lighting scheme and scope completed long before buildings were up; made possible by advance in illuminating engineering, developed under name of science of lighting and art of illumination.
Chief of Department of Illumination, Walter D'Arcy Ryan, of the General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York; field assistant, A. F. Dickerson.
Ornamental details of lighting standards and fixtures, designed by J. W. Gosling; designs made at Illuminating Engineering Laboratories, Schenectady.
Keynote of lighting scheme - life and gaiety, without garishness.
Lighting kept subordinate to architecture; walks shaded to throw emphasis on brilliantly lighted facades and to bring out architecture, landscape and flowers. Same lighting principle used throughout; but effect in different courts radically different.
Area of surface illuminated, 8,000,000 square feet; 2,000,000 of wall surface, and 6,000,000 of ground surface.
Number of searchlights used: 373 arc searchlights, in diameter from 13 to 36 inches; 450 small searchlights, called the "Mosquito Fleet"; 250 incandescent projectors for flag lighting.
Fillmore Street Entrance
South facade of entrance, outline illumination, with bare electric lights following outlines of architecture; used elsewhere only in Zone.
Inside Fillmore Street entrance, Zone to right; brilliant lighting, outline illumination, more or less refined; exaggerated effects prohibited.
Zone, element of festivity in arches crossing street at short intervals, ribbons of turkey red suspended from each lamp give warmth and action.
Contrast of Zone lights with illumination in other parts of Exposition.
To left, Service Building, administration offices; coloring, Pinks and blue; ceiling of porch, intense blue, deepest used on grounds.
Corner of Avenue of Palms and Avenue of Progress: lights banners, towers, facades of buildings, walks, flood lights, spots of light and color.
Fairy-like effect of Avenue of Palms: towers look luminous; in early evening Italian Towers red hot, throbbing; glow stronger than Tower of Jewels; later, Tower of Jewels most brilliant spot on avenue.
Tower illumination, floods of light from searchlights; white light creates shadows, in turn illuminated by concealed colored light on various stages, on Tower of Jewels and Italian Towers.
Single light standards along Avenue of Palms, light yellow, dull points of light; contrast with white pearly light on tops of booths.
Avenue of Progress
Along Avenue of Progress: fine flag display; no direct sources of light; banners; beautiful scenes made by planting against walls and quality of green on lawn; daylight effect from luminous arcs which produce whitest artificial light in use.
Gas lights on tops of booths, emergency lights if electricity fails.
Banners and heraldic shields, designed by Ryan; banners, of early explorers and pioneers, heraldic shields related to history of California, Mexico, Central America, and Pacific Ocean.
Purpose of banners: to form beautiful lines of color, to screen eyes from direct light source, to reflect light toward buildings, and to suggest history of court.
Banners suspended, swung by wind, form moving spots of color.
Roman gateway, Palace of Varied Industries: faint light through small arches above doorway; delicate green lattice or grill work in door.
Light in doorways: appearance of life within, produced by reflectors inside palaces throwing light through glass of doors; new idea; contrast with dark windows of other expositions.
Arches of Machinery Palace: warm red glow in domes above; strong yellow through doors below.
Inner Court of Mines Leading From Palace of Machinery to Court of Ages
Illumination strongest on upper sections of wall; it becomes more subdued as it approaches flowers and lawns, and reaches lowest point on center of avenue; plan used on all avenues.
Green lattice work, filling entire main doorway, in harmony with lawns.
Single globe lamps placed against walls; only court with lights in this position.
Shell lamps, flooding walls with light, advanced method of wall illumination.
View of central fountain in Court of Ages: glow of red lights, faint shimmer in pools, steam rising to suggest the earth cooling after being thrown off by the sun.
Court of the Ages
Court of the Ages: mystery in blending of illumination from searchlights above; lack of direct illumination on court itself; steam cauldrons, with illumination, incandescent lights, gas torches in small serpent cauldrons, lanterns in arches of the arcade that burn around cloister.
Fountain of Earth in center of pool, carrying mind down the ages to correspond with architect's conception of court.
Steam rising from base of fountain; figures silhouetted in warm red glow; lighter tone of red at upper portion of ball; shimmering reflection of panels, with red background in pool at sides of fountain.
Serpent cauldrons, around edge of pool, to heighten weird effect, by the flickering of the gas lamps.
Large cauldrons at east and west entrances; effect of simmering molten liquid.
Steam used in court, obtained from twenty horse-power boiler under tower.
Main tower, only tower without direct light thrown on exterior; religious feeling, increased by candlesticks, two on each side; steam to suggest smoke drifting upward.
Reflection of tower in pool, to be seen from south.
Cathedral appearance of windows at sides of court, by illumination in warm orange tone from within.
Sunburst standards modelled in imitation of snow crystal, and resembling monstrance used in Catholic church; two at south of court; only large light sources in court; contrast with other illumination.
Two fairy lanterns in each arch around court.
Brangwyn murals lighted without glare by indirect diffusion from four corners.
Play of lights along colonnade; lighting on murals adds to apparent distance.
North Entrance to Court of the Ages
Similar treatment of lights, brighter than in central court; four star clusters, sixteen serpent cauldrons; effect heightened.
Tower, more beautiful from Marina side; note of refinement illumination in altar, shadow in two colors, created by red light illuminated by pale amber lights.
Star clusters convey to mind religious feeling in keeping with design; cathedral effect.
View of Italian Towers at sides of Court of Flowers, from north court, red glow and green columns of towers on either side of Mullgardt tower, vivid contrast.
To Court of the Universe, through Florentine Court.
Florentine Court; only illumination, single lamp standards; contrast with intense light in Court of Universe, beyond.
Fine shadow effects against walls; vertical shadows of columns in arches contrasted with shadows of trees and shrubbery.
Court of the Universe
Arch of Rising Sun; light through latticed windows in arch to give faint spots of luminous color.
Illumination of main and side arches; curvature preserved and details thrown into relief by lights of different strengths and colors; concealed red light on one side and pale lemon light on other side thrown on arch. All main arches similarly accentuated.
Urns in side arches, effect heightened by lights thrown from sides, bring out lines; red on one side, on the other pale green.
Colonnade, illuminated by three translucent shell cups sunk into central groove of each column at rear; spear of light from each shell up the grooves or fluting; pleasant glow through shells from below. Effect of melted gold, suggesting the tongues of fire mentioned in the Scriptures.
Sculptural groups on Arches of Rising and Setting Sun, flooded with light from searchlights, creating black shadows, in turn illuminated by purple lights on top of arch. Figures thrown into relief.
Tower of Jewels, gradual illumination; early evening, faintly lighted; later, when searchlights are turned on, tower dominates southern wall; blaze of white light; jewels sparkle like diamonds; turquoise columns, faintly colored in bright light; statues, orange color.
Star figures around court above colonnades, jewelled; each has forty-two stones, illuminated by small searchlights on opposite side of court. Early evening, pretty effect; little jets of light from figures shoot across the court in clearly defined rays. Later, flood of lights from columns in court above the small rays.
Fountains of Rising and Setting Sun; columns, said to be strongest light sources ever created; aggregate 500,000 candlepower sufficient to illuminate 500,000 square feet of surface; fluting of columns glazed with special diffusion glass. For elimination of shadows caused by structure, there is diffusive glass inside. The glare from the light source is not excessive; brilliancy low; daring illumination of entire court.
Lights under water in pools of fountains; source and reflection concealed; yellow light diffused over surface.
Figures on pedestals of balustrades mark boundary of Sunken Garden; not for illumination, but for ornament merely.
Domes of corner pavilions, north of Tower of Jewels, fine contrasts in interior; delicate blue ceiling; orange at sides.
Bear fountains at sides of Palaces of Manufactures and Liberal Arts, north of Tower of Jewels; three on each wall in flat niches; coloring, pink wall, turquoise blue, green; lights concealed under water; when water is flowing, wavering light like heat waves; niches hardly noticeable when water is not flowing.
Tower of Jewels, interior of main arch, accentuated by lights at sides above columns; no illumination on murals.
In niches at either side, Fountains of Youth and El Dorado, flood-lighted from above; no colored lights; two single lamp standards in each court; reflection of fountain figures in pools.
On the Way to the Marina
Lighting of colonnades, vivid pinks and blues. Illumination in colonnade from lamps concealed in cups in one of the inner flutes of each column. Notice reflections of colonnade in pool.
Column of Progress; flood light on figures on top of column by searchlights.
On the Marina
North facade of buildings, tall dark-green planting against walls, black vertical shadows; shading of lawn; flood light standards, spots of dull orange light through translucent rigid shields. Spots of light from single globes along avenue, on water front, white lights on booths; glow from lamps at entrance to Court of Four Seasons.
Spanish doorway of Palaces of Food Products, Agriculture, Transportation and Mines, among most successfully illuminated portals on grounds; light pink walls in two shades, light blue vaulted ceiling, green edges; three arches; light green lattice work; dark shadows in niches of "Conquistador" and "Pirate."
"Adventurous Bowman," profile view of group from entrance to Court of Four Seasons; outlined against blue-black sky; stars, in sky about it, mere points of light. Group sometimes reproduced in the fog.
Inner Court, between Court of the Universe and Court of Four Seasons.
Only illumination, single globe standards. Contrast of bright illumination in Court of Universe with more subdued light in Court of Four Seasons.
Coloring, pink walls in harmony with walls of corridors in Courts at either end.
Planting, low shrubbery, with tall trees massed in corners.
Court of the Four Seasons
Court of Four Seasons; flood illumination on the bulls at sides, glowing half-dome at south, figure of "Harvest" above dome, and twin Italian towers at sides.
Illumination of court in harmony with architecture, very quiet.
Charm of lighting in colonnades against Pompeian red walls; three half globes in cups at rear of plain columns.
Fountains of Four Seasons, illumination of red walls against intense blue of sky, in early evening like color in paintings by Maxfield Parrish. Concealed lights, red, orange, yellow and lemon, fall on walls and create interesting luminous shadows on fountain figures.
Water falling from cascades, a luminous green; not only are lights concealed, but also reflection of sources, an effect that, it was predicted, could not be achieved.
Figures on fountains reflected in green water.
Reflections in pool in center of court; from north, half dome and figure of "Harvest" above dome; from south, the bulls on the pylons.
View through north court toward bay, from half-dome, very interesting; intense white light of scintillator directly opposite court; statute of "Ceres," silhouetted against rays.
Banners in court, no heraldic designs.
Half dome in Court of Four Seasons; even distribution of light, ceiling lighted from base of dome, lights diffused through dome and softly graded down to floor by ten shell lamps up wall, back of vertical projection on each side.
Through Aisle of Spring to Administration Avenue, facing Palace of Fine Arts.
Along the Western Wall
Illumination: Yellow glow from single lamp standards along Administration Avenue. Searchlights on top of wall, flooding Palace of Fine Arts. Wall, lighted by reflection from shields; orange light through translucent portion of shields.
High wall flooded with light, in strong contrast with dark rippling surface of lagoon across the avenue.
Half-domes; warm golden glow; light from interior through stained glass windows in domes.
Planting, trees cast tall vertical shadows against wall; heavier shadows at base, from massed shrubbery.
Palace of Fine Arts
Illumination, "triple moonlight," three times the strength of the moon's rays. Searchlights flood the building; concealed yellow lights on cornices in rear of columns. Three effects; flood lighting, relief lighting, and combination of both. One night, flood light; next, combination.
View from Administration Avenue across lagoon; finest reflections on grounds; changing views; small sections of lagoon, mirror-like; others, rippled or wavering; entire colonnade and rotunda reflected.
Suggestion of ancient ruin, intended by architect, brought out by lighting. Great shadows, deepening toward base of columns.
Contrasted colors in colonnade, from across lagoon; pink walls, dark green doors, columns silhouetted against walls.
In the Colonnade, Entering From North
"Triple moonlight," bright rays across colonnade through columns, making intense shadows; when moon is shining the fainter rays cut weirdly through shadows; suggestion of moonlight coming from two directions.
Reflections in lagoon, from along colonnade, north of rotunda; West facade of walled city, with half domes of Palaces of Education and Food Products, and dim reflections of Italian towers. Changing reflections all along colonnade, and from rotunda.
Rotunda, on nights when relief illumination is used, lights on capitals of Corinthian columns; deep color effects in murals on dome.
View of palace from south across lagoon, with flood lights on rotunda and colonnade.
Avenue of Palms
Quality of light brings out color detail; fine display of flowers; massing of shrubbery at base of wall, and tall trees casting vertical shadows.
Elephant and lion fountains along south wall; colors, pink and blue; rippling of water causes light to wave.
Central doorway of Palace of Liberal Arts, rosetta or rose-window effect in semi-circular space above door; orange light through lattice work of door.
Court of Palms
Court of Palms, illumination of towers from searchlights. Only direct light, from single white globes painted to imitate Travertine, and Roman hanging lamps around in corridors; faint red shines through from below.
Reflections in circular and rectangular pools; north, east, and west portals; the columns, the colonnades at sides of entrances, the murals above doorways; pinks, blues, reds, orange.
Murals above east, west, and north doorways, best effect at night. Illumination at base of arches throws light on upper part of mural, shading softly and gradually down to base.
Palace of Horticulture
Dome of Palace of Horticulture; beams of light from concealed searchlights play through revolving lenses and color screens of green, orange, and red, fading slowly into each other in moving designs on glass dome.
Floral hanging lamps in east and north entrances; deep green of lattice work in domes above; hanging lamps along porches, pearl-white light.
French lighting standards, pale yellow light, hundreds of Travertined globes, soft light unique ivory color.
Clusters of lights- look like bunches of grapes.
Reflections in pools north of Young Women's Christian Association Building and Press Building
Flood lights on equestrian figure in Fountain of Energy.
Court of Flowers
No searchlights, no direct illumination; suggestion of dimness and seclusion.
Italian towers, glow of light through small doors above entrances; appearance of life inside; strong strong red shadows on first lift; turquoise columns on next lift, pink background.
Lamps in corridors, Italian and Roman; translucent, dull red light.
Floral lamp standards between columns in corridors, pale yellow light.
Flood light shields at south entrance to court; too bright necessarily.
Reflection of Festival Hall in pool; Fountain of the Mermaid silhouetted against entrance window of hall; golden light through colored glass.
Warm pink illumination inside towers at corners of large dome; green coloring of dome, more effective than by day.
Blending of lines of building with planting against walls.
End of The Project Gutenberg Etext The City of Domes, by John D. Barry