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Modern American Art.
From this point on the rooms to be dealt with in the American Section contain modern work. It is not within the design of this brief guide to assign each artist represented in this immense collection to his precise place in the school to which adequate criticism might link him. What is done instead is of a very practical nature. The jury has pronounced its verdicts upon this large body of work - save, of course, in the case of the eminent artists placed hors conoours - and all the artists whose work has been honored, from Grand Prize down through the list of Medal of Honor and Gold Medal artists, including some of those granted lesser awards, will be pointed out as we proceed.
This plan, obviously, commits us to the guidance of authority, to the direction of the official jury, to be precise; however, we are not engaged in a personal adventure, seeking the things which we individually may like, but, rather, we are making a definite effort to gain a certain connected and logical acquaintance with the general line of American art. Just the same, we should supplement this study with the personal exploration. Knowledge without emotional enjoyment is of no real avail in art.
The artists exhibited individually in separate rooms will be dealt with in the chapter following this one.
Room No. 55.
While there are several schools and influences mingling in this room, the dominant interest is supplied by two typical examples of Alexander Harrison's marine paintings; one (No. 2566) on Wall A, and the other (No. 2697) on Wall D.
There are other pictures by Harrison to be seen elsewhere in the galleries, one especially notable work (No. 3080) being placed in the rotunda, which is numbered as Room 66. Harrison, born in Philadelphia in 1853, a pupil of Bastien Lepage and Gerome in Paris, was one of the first of the American artists who, inspired by Manet, took up the painting of figures in natural surroundings in the open air - the school of "plein air." The picture hangs to the right as you enter by the eastern portal. It is a group of nude figures on the seashore, and apart from its own inherent charm, deserves notice and study, as does all this painter's work, because of the important part it played as a formative influence in American art. The truthful, yet poetical, rendering of the play of sunlight upon the delicate flesh tones, and the ambience of the atmosphere, produced a profound effect upon Harrison's contemporaries, and did much to open the door to public appreciation of modern landscape and figure painting.
A picture by Kenyon Cox, one of the prominent mural painters of the academic school, hangs on Wall C (No. 2586). Charles C. Curran, another well-known name, is represented by No. 2595 on Wall D. Several California painters also draw attention. Jean Mannheim (No. 2579), who recently settled in Los Angeles, and Maurice Braun (No. 2564), another Southern California artist, exhibit attractive work, and Evelyn McCormick, a San Francisco painter, uses a subject historically as well as pictorially attractive, in her 'Old Custom House, Monterey." An interesting group of small seaside scenes by E. Potthast, on Wall C, is a popular feature of the room,
Room No. 56.
There are several notes of special interest in this room. Upon Wall A, Elizabeth Nourse and Marion Powers, both of whom were awarded Gold Medals, are represented, each by a typical group. Elizabeth Nourse was a pupil of Henner and Carolus-Duran in Paris. Her first official honor was won at the Chicago Exposition in 1893. Another medal winner - silver - represented on this wall is Mary C. Richardson, whose young mother with sleeping child is a charming example of this Californian's figure work. A romantic landscape by Ettore Caser, a Venetian, who now lives in Boston, also hangs on this wall. Caser is the winner of a Silver Medal.
George Hitchcock, one of the pioneers of Impressionism. has several of his typical Holland canvases on Wall B. Two painters of San Francisco, Anne M. Bremer and Carl Oscar Borg. are also on this wall. Of Miss Bremer something further is said in the chapter dealing with the woman's room. Borg, a painter and etcher who has worked much in Mexico, has been awarded a Silver Medal. (No. 2618.)
F. W, Stokes, a pupil of Thomas Eakins, and of Gerome and Boulanger in Paris, exhibits on Wall D a group of interesting canvases which are the result of his observations in the Arctic as a member of the Peary expedition of 1893-94, and of a similar artistic exploration of the marvels of the Antarctic region.
Room No. 85.
A group of painters of major importance, in some cases, and all of whom occupy settled places, is assembled in this room.
Its greatest name is Horatio Walker, four of whose big and virile paintings hang on Walls A and B. Walker is Canada's greatest contribution to American art. Born in Ontario in 1858, he received his training in New York. It is the Island of Orleans in the St. Lawrence river, which forms the regular scene of Walker's work. There where the inhabitants, the descendants of French settlers, have preserved the primitive way of life of their forefathers, this artist paints pictures of figure and landscape full of fine and tender human feeling, strongly drawn and subtly and eloquently colored. A Gold Medal has been awarded to him.
To the work of Charles W. Stetson, an artist who has long resided in Rome, though most of his early work was done in Southern California, Wall C is devoted. A romantic aspect dominates his numerous figure and landscape paintings. He also shows a portrait of his wife, Grace Ellery Channing Stetson, the well-known author.
Two figure painters of much distinction, Douglas Volk and C. W. Hawthorne, are on Wall B, Both are represented by three pictures each. Douglas Volk belongs to an earlier period than Hawthorne, who links up with the more modern movement. To Volk has been awarded a Gold Medal, and to Hawthorne a Silver Medal.
Upon Wall D hangs a mother and child by Clara Weaver Parrish, who has won a Silver Medal. But the prime interest is supplied by George DeForest Brush, three examples of whose pathbreaking work hang on Wall D. A pupil of Gerome. Brush opened up the field of imaginative thoughtful treatment of our vanishing Indian life. Brush is also distinguished for his pictures of mothers and children.
Room No. 65.
This, one of the most spacious rooms in the building, is also one of the most interesting, as it is exclusively devoted to the work of women. That their work rests for its interest not merely upon the fact that they are women, but upon solid grounds of merit, is denoted by the large number of awards granted by the jury.
Two names stand prominently forth from the others. There is Mary Cassatt, the pupil of Manet, and one of the pioneers in Impressionism, who is represented by a characteristic group of works. As all the canvases by her date from before the year 1904 - and as all works produced before that time could not he entered in competition for prizes - Mary Cassatt was placed "hors concours," or "out of the race," for official honors. Her paintings are on Wall B (Nos. 3006, 3008, and 3010). They have attracted a large share of admiration. Mary Cassatt is one of the pioneers of Impressionism, having been in Paris at the time the movement was initiated.
The other big name is that of Cecilia Beaux. To her has been awarded a Medal of Honor by the Grand Jury of the Panama-Pacific Exposition, the highest honor in its gift next to that of Grand Prix. A native of Philadelphia, Cecilia Beaux studied in Paris. Honors have been showered thickly upon her. She has won medals at practically all the prominent American exhibitions, and also a gold medal at the Paris Exposition in 1900. Wall A, with the exception of one picture, is devoted entirely to her work, of which seven characteristic examples are shown. Unquestionably, Cecilia Beaux now takes rank as the leading American woman painter.
Another winner of a Medal of Honor is Violet Oakley, whose "The Tragic Muse" (No. 3015), hangs on Wall B. It is a portrait of Mrs. Florence Earle Coates, the distinguished poet. Another very notable work by this artist, a stained glass window, the subject of which is Dantes Divine Comedy, is exhibited in Room No. 38. Born in New York, at first a student of Howard Pyle and Cecelia Beaux, and later of Lazar and Colliu in Paris, Violet Oakley now takes high rank among American mural painters. Her chief work is in the Capitol at Harrisburg, Pa.
There are also three winners of Gold Medals in this room, together with several winners of Silver Medals. The Gold Medalists are Lillian W. Hale, Ellen Emmet Rand and Johanna K. Woodwell Hailman. Mrs. Hailman's "To Market in the West Indies," an old woman with a basket of poultry on her upright head, is a very fresh and original decorative work.
Ellen Emmet Rand shows a portrait of Professor William James (No. 2995), and four other paintings attractive in their subject matter and of a high degree of technical excellence. (Wall B, Nos. 2986, 2990, 2991, and 2993.)
Mrs. Hale shows two canvases. The quest of beauty, refined or romantic beauty, is her object rather than experiments in painting, or the pursuit of realism. Her work is on Wall A (Nos. 2997 and 2998).
Two Silver Medalists have pictures hanging on Wall C. M. Jean McLane - a well-known pupil of Chase - is represented by three vivid and fiowingly painted portiaits.
Mary Curtis Richardson, the other Silver Medalist, is a Californian painter. Her "The Young Mother" has won popular favor as well as critical acclaim.
Gertrude Lambert's "Black and Green" and Maude Drien Bryant's three still life studies, and Anna Traquair Lang's notable group, especially the "Japanese Print," attract and repay attention.
Upon Wall D, among the pictures of Cecelia Beaux, is shown an attractive example of modern work by Anne M. Bremer, a Californian artist, who has studied in Paris and is one of several young painters who have brought to the West the stimulation of modernity. Several other examples of Miss Bremer's work hang elsewhere. A Bronze Medal has been awarded her.
Two women sculptors exhibit cases of their small bronzes in this room. Bessie Potter Vonnoh has won a Silver Medal. The other is Abastenia St. Leger Eberle. Anna Vaughan Hyatt exhibits a vigorous "Eight-Horse Group."
Room No. 80.
This has been termed "The Boston Room," as it contains the work of several eminent artists of that city, among whom are two members of the jury, Philip L. Hale and William Paxton.
To another artist in this room, Willard L. Metcalf, has been awarded a Medal of Honor, which, as stated before, ranks higher than a Gold Medal.
Philip L. Hale, a son of the famous Rev. Edward Everett Hale, is a well-known writer as well as painter. He is a pupil of J. Alden Weir, a fellow member of the jury. His group of paintings hang together on Wall A, where also are found the works of Paxton. The latter was a pupil of Gerome in Paris.
Upon Wall A bang five pictures by Metcalf, of which No. 3770, a study of shimmering green leaves, is an especially remarkable work. Metcalf is a New Yorker, though born in Massachusetts. A pupil of Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris, his present Medal of Honor comes as the climax to a long series of official honors. A spirit of blithe, happy lyricism breathes through these vibrant studies of Spring and Winter landscapes.
Another New Yorker, Bruce Crane, a pupil of that great early American landscapist, Alexander H. Wyant, has a Silver Medal picture, a pleasing landscape (No. 3783) on Wall B.
Room No. 51.
This room has been characterized as devoted to the works of Thomas Anshutz, the pupils of Anshutz, and of their pupils; but, save to those who may be aware of this inter-relation of the artists, the pictures seem of a wide variety of subject and method. Unquestionably, the ultramodern pictures of Breckenridge, for example, are a far cry from the work of Aushutz.
Thomas Anshutz is represented by two canvases (Nos. 2474 and 2499). Born in Kentucky in 1841, his early training was received at the National Academy of Design, New York, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Later he studied under Doucet and Bouguereau in Paris. A teacher in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts for many years before his death, he influenced many of the younger generation.
It is the name of Robert Henri which is the most vital and best known in this room. Henri's group hangs on Wall C (Nos. 2487, 2489, 2491, 2493, 2495, 2498, and 2501), among them being several paintings in his latest manner - a manner that has caused much discussion among those who follow the work of a man who is the leader of a revolutionary section of young New Yorkers, and who is a piquant and stimulating figure in the radical set. Henri was born in Ohio in 1865, and studied in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under Anshutz, and in Paris, Spain and Italy. He has been a winner of many honors and has been awarded a Silver Medal at this exhibition. For a man brought up under such academical forces as those of the Julian Academy in Paris, Henri has displayed a remarkable originality and independence, and his work has tended more and more to be realistic statements of a reaction from sentimentality and trite subjects.
Two other Silver Medalists hang in this room, A. B. Carles and Adolph Borie, both painters of the nude, and both of what may be roughly termed the school of individualistic realism. Their pictures hang on Wall A, together with a group by W. J. Glackens (2466, 2468, 2469, and 2470), another radical and experimental younger man. An interesting picture by the same artist hangs on Wall D, a group seated in the celebrated Moquin Cafe on Sixth Avenue, New York, a more or less Bohemian resort for painters and writers. All the figures are portraits of well-known people; artists, an art patron, and a member of the demi-mondaine.
Wall B is devoted to Hugh H. Breckenridge, the winner of a Gold Medal, and a highly interesting case of a mature artist turning from a settled style to a newer, technically more radical, style and winning success therein. A pupil of Bouguereau and other academical masters in Paris, and an instructor in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts since 1894, Breckenridge has won many honors. The large group of still life and flower pictures which be displays is an interesting chapter of the development in America of the movement in search of an intense reality in painting which stems from the work of Cezanne and Van Gogh, but which has exfoliated into strange branches and fruits which sometimes show no apparent connection with the trunk from which they spring.
Room No. 50.
Sergeant Kendall, a recipient of many honors in both painting and sculpture, has been awarded a Gold Medal for the pictures shown in this room, and a Silver Medal for the polychromatic wooden statue also displayed here. A figure painter, primarily, Kendall's work is academical, charming and always popular. Three of his canvases (Nos. 2439, 2442 and 2443) hang on Wall B.
Other well-known names are those of Louis Kronberg, a Silver Medal winner, of Boston, a painter who has specialized in pictures of ballet girls and dancers, of which a typical example is hung on Wall A; and H. D. Murphy, a group of whose canvases hang on the same wall. Another Silver Medalist, who like Murphy, lives in Massachusetts, is Ettore Caser, a native of Venice, one of whose romantic landscapes, of which several are displayed in various rooms (No. 2457), is upon Wall D. J. F. Carlson, a New Yorker, is still another winner of a Silver Medal, his landscape (No. 2452) being on Wall B.
The Californians, of whom there is a strong showing in this room, comprise several of the most interesting of the younger group. Of the prize winners among them, Armin Bansen, Broce Nelson, Charlton Fortune and Anne Bremer, mention is made elsewhere. Betty De Yong, winner of an Honorable Mention, is another young Californian artist, by adoption, whose work has attracted much attention.
Room No. 66.
This is the number of the hall, or rotunda, into which the eastern and western main entrances of the Fine Arts building open. The eastern entrance is marked on the plan as Room No. 83, and the west entrance as Room No. 35. Room No. 66 connects the southern and northern wings of the building. All the ground so far covered in this guide is in the southern wing. Most of the pictures hanging here have been referred to elsewhere. A good deal of the notable sculpture is placed in this room, the most prominent being referred to in the chapter on Sculpture.
On Wall A, above the doorway, hangs a powerful piece of mural decoration by Charles J. Dickman, a California painter, a member of the jury. Several decorative panels by H. C. Cushing, a Gold Medal artist already mentioned, hang on Wall B, together with landscapes by Haley Lever, Ettore Caser and F. M. Lamb. On the west wall or Wall C is Robert Vonnoh's "Poppies." On the north wall is Alexander Harrison's 'The Joy of Life," a picture which, as stated before, was one of those which did much to stimulate the interest of American painters in the plein air branch of Impressionism.
In the eastern hall, numbered 83, are four decorative panels by Mrs. Sargent Florence, an American artist residing in Italy.
In the western entrance hall, numbered 35, is a large mural by Henry B. Fuller, "The Triumph of Truth Over Error." This was awarded a Silver Medal.
Room No. 67.
A Medal of Honor seascape hangs in this room, among many interesting examples of the work of vital contemporary men. It is by Emil Carlsen; it is numbered 3183, it hangs on Wall D - it hardly needs any directions to find it, for its blue and windy vision of mid-ocean catches the eye at once. Emil Carlsen is an artistic gift from Denmark to this country, and his vigorous painting of marine subjects has brought him to success.
Another marine artist whose work is well and favorably known and which has been awarded a Gold Medal, is Paul Dougherty. Four pictures by him hang on Wall A. Paul Dougherty is a New York man, of such independence of mind that he studied without any masters in Paris, London, Florence, Venice and Munich. Examples of his work hang in all the principal galleries of the country.
Another Gold Medalist is Charles H. Davis, whose vigorous picture, "The Northwest Wind" (No. 3160), hangs on Wall B. Davis is a Connecticut man, a pupil of the Boston Museum School and of Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris, and the recipient of many previous official honors.
Robert Spencer, whose "The Gray Mills" hangs on Wall C. was also awarded a Gold Medal. A native of Nebraska, he is a young man, a pupil of Chase, DuMond, and Henri. He is an interpreter of modern humble life, the grim, gray world of industrial conditions.
The work of yet another Gold Medal Winner, a sculptor this time, is exhibited in one of the cases. It is by Arthur Putnam, a San Franciscan artist for whom the word genius is perhaps not too great an epithet. As a moulder of animal figures he creates work that seems fairly to quiver with the force of life. The Metropolitan Museum in New York possesses one of his pieces. which sustain comparison with the work of masters like Barye.
Hayley Lever, whose "Boats in Harbor" hangs upon Wall C, is yet another winner of a Gold Medal. Several other vivid, interesting pictures by Lever hang in other rooms. On this wall is an interesting work by an academical but powerful painter, Hugo Ballin (No. 3175).
There are a number of artists placed in this room - some of them also being hung in other rooms who have won Silver Medals. No less than four of them are Californians. They are Joseph Raphael, Armin C. Hansen, William Wendt and Carl Oscar Borg.
Raphael has three pictures, No. 3154, on Wall A, and No. 3165, on Wall B, and No. 3189, on Wall D. Born in Amador County, California. Raphael is one of these artists who have won their way through great difficulties and hardships. He is at present continuing his studies in Holland.
Armin C. Hansen's painting is on Wall B (No. 3161). He is a young man of whom big things are expected. A work that perhaps represents him in a more congenial mood than the one in this room hangs in Room 50, on Wall B (No. 2441).
William Wendt, now associated with southern California, is a German who came to this country early in life, and is a self-taught artist. Two of his pictures (3169 and 3172) are on Wall C.
Oscar Borg has already been spoken of. His "Chateau Gaillard" hangs on Wall B.
John F. Carlson, a New York painter, is a Silver Medalist, three of whose Spring and Winter landscapes hang on Wall D (Nos. 3179, 3180 and 3188). An interesting canvas by Charles Francis Brown, a member of the jury, hangs on Wall A (No. 3143).
Room No. 68.
The work of a Medal of Honor man is, officially, at all events, the chief point of interest in this room, which contains a great deal of important modern American painting.
M. E. Schofield is the winner of the highest honor. Two large Winter landscapes by him hang on Wall D. Born in Philadelphia, and a pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and then of Bouguereau, Ferrier, and others in Paris, Sohofield has had a long career marked by many official honors, coming to a climax at this exhibition. Most of the important permanent public collections of this country contain pictures by him
H. G. Cushing, whose strikingly decorative work is shown by three examples on Wall A (Nos. 3231, 3233 and 3234) and which also hangs in the rotunda (Room 66), to your left as you enter the eastern door, was awarded a Gold Medal. Cushing is a Boston painter, a pupil of Laurens and Constant in Paris.
Upon Wall A hang two marine pictures by William Ritschel, another Gold Medalist whose work is also mentioned in other rooms. There are also paintings by Walter McEwen, a member of the jury, and one by another juryman, Matteo Sandona, a San Franciscan, a portrait of Mrs. Leo Lentelli, wife of the sculptor.
John C. Johansen, winner of a Gold Medal, is a native of Denmark, but a thoroughly American artist, a student of Frank Duveneck, and of the Julian Academy in Paris. His large painting of "The Village Rider" hangs on Wall B, together with a number of other characteristic works by him. On this wall is placed two paintings by a California artist of high merit, a painter in whom there is a large measure of true poetry, Gottardo Piazzoni (Nos. 3245 and 3253).
Daniel Garber is still another Gold Medal artist. A young and vigorous painter of the modern school, a native of Indiana, and a pupil of the Cincinnati Academy and of Thomas Anschutz in Philadelphia, Garber is a leading member of that interesting body of artists springing up in the Middle West. Six of his typical canvases hang on Wall C.
Room No. 69.
Visitors to this room at about the time the jury completed its work saw beneath one of the pictures a wreath of flowers which hung there for many days, drooping and withering. It told a tale which brought into the Palace of Art a pensive thought of human mortality. Just as a Medal of Honor had been awarded to the artist the news came of his sudden death. He was John W. Alexander, a man who took rank with William Chase and Sargent among American artists. The picture is the celebrated "Phyllis," loaned by the City Art Museum of St. Louis, a graciously beautiful canvas in which there seems one knows not what of wistful melancholy, which makes itself felt despite the youthfulness of the tall, slim girl who holds the lucent bowl of shimmering water.
John W. Alexander was horn October 7, 1856, in Allegheny. He studied in Munich, Venice and Florence. He was a member of many art societies in this country, England, France, Germany and Austria, and had won many honors and decorations. There are examples of his work in the Luxembourg, Paris, the Metropolitan Museum, New York, and galleries elsewhere; while his work as a mural painter is in the Library of Congress, Washington; the Capitol, Harrisburg, Pa., and the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh.
Another Medal of Honor picture is on Wall D. It is No. 3323, by Richard E. Miller, a comparatively young man, born 1875, in St. Louis, Mo., and a pupil of the art school in his native city and then of Constant and Laureas in Paris. He has won many high honors at home and abroad, and is represented in the Luxembourg and many other of the great permanent collections.
A third Medal of Honor was granted in this room to Lawton Parker, three of whose figure pieces hang on Wall B (Nos. 3296, 3298 and 3300). Parker was born in Michigan, 1868, and was a pupil of Gerome, Laurens, Besnard and Whistler in Paris, and of Chase in New York. He has won many high awards and has painted portraits of prominent people.
On Wall A hangs a painting by C. H. Woodbury, a rainbow glittering through ocean spray, which has won a Gold Medal. Woodhury is a well-known marine painter, born in Massachusetts, and a pupil of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, later studying under Boulanger and Lefebvre in Paris. He has well many previous honors.
There are two winners of Silver Medals in this room: one is Marion L. Pooke, whose picture (No. 3317) is on Wall D. The other is Maurice Del Mue, a young San Franciscan whose work is full of promise. His impressive mountain landscape (No. 3302) hangs on Wall B.
There are two members of the jury represented in this room. John W. Beatty, a Pittsburg artist, and a pupil of the Munich school, has a group of landscapes on Wall C. Jules Pages, a San Franciscan, who has been a teacher in Paris for a number of years, is represented by a large picture, "On the Quais," on Wall B.
Room No. 70.
This room is devoted to portraiture.
Irving R. Wiles, a winner of a Gold Medal, is shown on Wall C. No. 3383 is a portrait of the celebrated opera singer, Mme. Gerville-Reache, as Carmen. No. 3385 is of J. Francis Murphy, the eminent landscape painter. Irving Wiles is a New Yorker who studied under his father, L. M. Wiles, and William M. Chase, and also under Carolus-Duran in Paris.
Herman G. Herkomer, an American artist who has lived most of his life in London, has three portraits on this wall. One (No. 3363) is of his cousin, Sir Hubert von Herkomer, R. A.
Robert D. Gauley, a winner of a Silver Medal, has two canvases (Nos. 3381 and 3367). Gauley is a native of Ireland and studied under Benson and Tarbell of Boston and Bouguereau and Ferrier in Paris.
On Wall D bangs Julian Story's portrait of Mrs. Story and one of himself. Another interesting number on Wall D is Noel Flagg's portrait of Paul Bartlett, the sculptor.
Room No. 71.
Two paintings by J. J. Enneking, the winner of a Gold Medal, hangs upon Wall A f3401, 3402). Although now associated with Boston, Enneking was born in Ohio, 1841, and studied under Bonnat and Daubigny in Paris, and Lehr in Munich.
On the same wall hang two very interesting and vivid canvases (Nos. 3404, 3412) by George Luks, one of the younger New Yorkers,
Two large portraits by Eric Pape, an artist born in San Francisco, are on Wall B. He now lives in Boston, where he is director of a school of art.
Among other artists with whom we have become acquainted who have canvases banging on Wall C, is a winner of a Silver Medal, E. Charltou Fortune, one of the youngest and most promising of the San Francisco painters. Only one of her vivid and personal pictures bangs in this room; others being placed elsewhere. This one is a view of the interior of the Carmel Mission, and has been bought by William M. Chase.
Room No. 72.
A historical painting of a special interest to westerners hangs on Wall A. Carlton T. Chapman's "The Annexation of California," showing the raising of the American flag, July 7, 1846, at Monterey.
Walter McEwen, one of the jurymen, has a group of four paintings (Nos. 3510, 3513, 3514, and 3519) on Wall B. He is one of the most distinguished of American artists living abroad, and has been the recipient of a long list of honors.
Frank Van Sloun, a San Francisco artist, a winner of a Bronze Medal, has a striking "Portrait of an Actor" on Wall C, upon which two other California artists, Gertrude Partington (3506) and Maren Froelich (3507) are also represented. Miss Partington was awarded a Bronze Medal.
Room No. 73.
A special, popular interest is given to this room by the large number of paintings of the Panama Canal by Alson Skinner Clark. These occupy the whole of Wall A and nearly all the space on Walls C and D. Clark is a Chicago painter. He was born in that city, 1876, and studied under many masters, among them being Whistler, in Paris, and Chase in New York.
There are two very interesting painters to whom Gold Medals were awarded for work shown here. One of them is Ernest Lawson, whose landscapes are full of subtle, artistic strength and beauty. His pictures (Nos. 3538, 3539, 3548) hang on Walls B and C. Lawson was born in California in 1873, was trained in France, and for many years has lived in New York.
The other Gold Medalist is Gifford Beal, also a New York painter of the younger set. A group of his paintings (Nos. 3540, 3541, 3542, and 3546) is placed on Wall B.
Room No. 74.
C. J. Taylor, a member of the jury, whose work covers Wall D, is the dominating factor of this room. A well-known New York painter and teacher, he studied under Eastman Johnson and in London and Paris. He is prominent as an illustrator as well as in painting.
The other walls are devoted to a number of younger men, notable among whose work is a canvas by Bruce Nelson (No. 3609), who is one of the youngest of western artists and a winner of a Silver Medal. There are pictures by Nelson in other rooms and all attract decided attention.
Will J. Hyett, winner of a bronze medal, is another of the younger school to repay attention. His "Cross Roads: Ravenrock," No. 3590, is on Wall A.
Room No. 49.
This is one of the most interesting of the American galleries, containing as it does work by several of the most distinguished contemporary artists. There are two members of the jury among them, J. Alden Weir and John McLure Hamilton.
Wall A is devoted to a splendid group of pictures by D. W. Tryon, an artist in whose interpretations of the beauty of nature as it is manifested in New England landscapes there can be felt that exquisite quality which so many other Americans, many of them possessed of great power, entirely lack, namely, an affinity for the spiritual. Dwight William Tryon was born in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1849. He was a pupil of Daubigny and Harpignies in Paris. He has worn many notable honors, and his works are in most of the great public collections of this country, no less than forty-three being in the Freer Collection in the National Gallery, Washington, D. C.
J. Alden Weir's group of landscape and figure painting are on Walls B and D. Born in the state of New York in 1852, J. Alden Weir was first the pupil of his father, Robert W. Weir, and later of Gerome in Paris. He was one of the first members of the Society of American Artists which, under the presidency of John La Farge, was founded in 1877 and marked the definite establishment of the modern movement in this country. Practically all the men of the advance guard "in that progress which has put American painting in line with that of other countries," says Charles H. Caffin, were members of that society. Weir became one of the most eminent among them. His work is represented in all the leading collections.
John McLure Hamilton's notable portraits of his mother, of Gladstone, and of Joseph Pennell, the etcher, are on Walls A and C. His large group of pastel drawings, nearly all of them being of the same vivacious girl, occupy Room No. 39, among the other rooms devoted to drawings and prints.
Hamilton is a Philadelphian, born 1853, who has lived in England since 1878. His portraits of distinguished Englishmen, such as Cardinal Manning, Professor Tyndall and Gladstone, hang in the Luxembourg, Paris, the National Gallery, London, and the Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia.
Room No. 48.
The distinguishing feature of this room is a picture by F. C. Frieseke (No. 2378), the winner of the Grand Prize in the American section. Inasmuch, however, as all his other pictures hang together in Room 117, we will speak further of this artist in the chapter devoted to that room.
The work of a portrait painter to whom was awarded a Gold Medal, O. P. Troccoli, is shown in this room (2350, 2354, 2369, and 2373). Truccoli is a Massachusetts painter who had not previously won high honors.
Room No. 47.
Collin Campbell Cooper, a winner of a Gold Medal, has two of his well-known paintings of aspects of New York City hanging on Wall D. Born in Philadelphia 1856, Cooper was trained at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the Julian Studio in Paris. He has specialized in street scenes.
Two members of the jury, both of them Californian artists, are represented in this room. C. J. Dickman, who received his training in Paris and is one of the leading artista of the Pacific slope, shows his "Picardy Fisher Folk" on Wall D.
Eugen Neuhaus exhibits on Wall B a group of his landscapes, done in tempora, this artist being one of a few who are today reviving the use of this primitive medium.
The art of the northwest is represented by Paul Morgan Gustin, of Seattle, Washington, and Ray S. Boynton of Portland, Oregon. Gustin's work is on Wall C (Nos. 2336, 2337 and 2239). Boynton's work is also on Wall C (Nos. 2330, 2331).
Room No. 46.
Six pictures by Frank V. Dumond, a member of the jury and one of the moral painters of the Exposition, his work decorating the Arch of the Setting Sun in the Court of the Universe, are in this room, four on Wall B, two on Mall C. He is a New York painter and an instructor in the Art Students League. Born in 1865 at Rochester, N. Y., he studied under Boulanger and Constant in Paris.
Upon Wall A hangs a group of brilliant flower pieces by Ruger Donoho, winner of a Gold Medal. Donoho is a native of Mississippi, born 1857, educated in New York and Paris.
On the same wall hangs a picture by Beatrice Whitney, a figure painting (No. 2271), which was awarded a Silver Medal.
In Eugene Higgins' "The Strange Land" on the same wall is expressed one of the rare efforts which American painters make to render the pathos of our modern industrial conditions.
Room No. 45.
Work of first-class importance demands interested notice here. The exceptionally rich quality of color of the group of paintings on Wall C draws attention irresistibly to the work of Walter Griffin, the winner of a Medal of Honor. They are principally views of Venice, and are full of individual force and original quality. Griffin is a native of Maine and studied under Collin and Laurens in Paris. His present work is the culmination of a remarkable and dramatic rise into artistic fame.
There are several winners of Gold Medals.
Among them is Robert Reid, whose mural paintings decorate the lofty dome of the Palace of Art. Two of his easel pictures (Nos. 2206, 2211) hang on Wall A. A Massachusetts man, Reid received his early training in Boston and New York, and later in Paris. He has been a recipient of many honors, and is one of the most distinguished mural painters in this country.
F. Luis Mora is also represented on Wall A (No. 2212). Other canvases by him hang elsewhere. Mora is a native of Uruguay and studied under Benson and Tarbell in Boston. The award of a Gold Medal is the last of a long series of honors.
Robert Vonnoh, also a Gold Medalist, has upon Wall B a portrait of Daniel Chester French, the sculptor. He has other pictures elsewhere. Vonnoh was born in Hartford, Connecticut. He received his early training in the art schools of Boston and later in the Julian Academy in Paris. He has done much distinguished work, especially in portraiture.
Still another Gold Medalist, E. F. Rook, has a still life picture on Wall D (No. 2245). He is a prominent member of the "Old Lyme Group" of landscape painters, so-called because Old Lyme, in Connecticut, is the center for their work.
Charles Morris Young, of Pennsylvania, has been awarded a Gold Medal. A group of his landscapes, in which Winter scenes predominate, hangs on Wall B. On this wall is an interesting canvas by Jonas Lie, a winner of a Silver Medal. Lie was born in Norway, in 1880. Trained in the schools of this country, he has made for himself a notable position among the younger men.
There are four paintings by Birge Harrison on Wall D. Born in Philadelphia, in 1854, he received his training under Cabanel in Paris, and has had a long and distinguished career both as painter and teacher.
Room No. 44.
Among the items of interest in this room the group of works by L. H. Meakin, a veteran painter and member of the jury, hanging on Wall C, is prominent. Born in England, but coming early to this country, Meakin studied in Munich, in Paris, and as an instructor in the Cincinnati Art Academy he has had much constructive influence in the development of art in the Middle West.
Two Californians who won Silver Medals are represented here. One is Edward Cucuel, a San Franciscan, who lives abroad and was trained under Laurens and Gerome in Paris. His paintings (Nos. 2195 and 2199) are on Wall D. Guy Rose, a Los Angeles artist who lives in France, has a picture hanging on Wall D (No. 2202).
Room No. 43.
Apart from the presence of the work of one of the jurymen, the main interest of this room is in the work of a number of young Californians.
Edward H. Wuerpel, whose landscapes hang on Wall D, is the juryman in question. Wuerpel is a Missouri artist, a painter and teacher of St. Louis, where he was born in 1866 and where he received his early training. His later studies were in Paris under Bouguereau, Robert-Fleury, and others.
Among the Californians, Maynard Dixon, whose paintings (Nos. 2112 and 2101) are on Wall A, is prominent. Dixon is a San Franciscan who seeks to interpret not only the visual but the spiritual quality of the Western deserts and mountains. He is the winner of a Bronze Medal.
Lee F. Randolph, winner of an Honorable Mention, who has two pictures (Nos. 2117 and 2118) on Wall B, is a young man, trained in France, who has settled in California, and of whom much is expected.
On Wall C hangs a portrait (No. 2131) by Clarence H. Hinkle, another San Franciscan, who shows strong promise.
On the same wall is a picture by still another San Franciscan, Perham Nahl (No. 2144), to which a Bronze Medal has been awarded. Perham Nahl is the creator of the powerful and poetical design which the Exposition has employed so extensively as a pester and which has won much artistic admiration - the symbolic design of Man cleaving a pathway through the Isthmus of Panama and uniting two oceans.
Rinaldo Cuneo, a San Franciscan who works abroad, has a notable painting of Notre Dame in Paris, on Wall D.
Room No. 117.
The Grand Prize
Frederic Carl Frieseke is, of course, the commanding interest of this room, which, however, contains many attractive works.
Frieseke is the winner of the Grand Prize. There are six of his pictures exhibited here, on Walls A, B and B. This is the work which according to the judgment of a majority of the artists who constituted the jury deserved the highest honor. Frieseke has been termed "a painters painter." Born in Michigan in 1874. his early training was received as a pupil of the Art Students League of New York. and under Constant, Laurens and Whistler in Paris, where be usually works. His career has been brilliantly successful and the honor now given him comes as a culmination of a long series of official awards. The Luxembourg Museum. Paris, and the Metropolitan Museum, New York, contain examples of his work. It is as a painter of light especially the subtleties and problems of light as it plays on open air subjects, that Frieseke has won his high place in modern art.
The following interesting comment was made by the New York Times:
"The Grand Prize at the Panama-Pacific Exposition goes to Mr. Frieseke, whose accomplished work is well known to New Yorkers and who says the last word in the style that was modern before the Modernists came along. He is not by any means new to honors. The Luxembourg owns a picture by him of a nude woman standing before a mirror, superbly modeled. He is represented in the Museums of Vienna and Odessa, and has received medals from Munich and St. Louis, and also took the Corcoran Prize at Washington in 1908, the year in which he was elected Sociétaire of the Société National des Beaux-Arts, Paris. He has painted mural decorations for an Atlantic City hotel and for the Amphitheatre of Music in New York. Whatever he does has qualities of design. color and style. A sense of gayety, an entertaining and well considered pattern, a remarkable knowledge of the effect of outdoor light on color are found in nearly all his recent paintings. This year. like many another American artist, he has been working in the Paris hospitals, putting aside his art for the acute duties of life that press suddenly upon those who live in France."
A very interesting picture which won a Gold Medal hangs on Wall C. It is by H. O. Tanner, and it represents "Christ at the Home of Lazarus." Tanner, whose chief attraction in art is religions subjects, and who has won a high place for his work in modern American art. Born in Pennsylvania in 1859, a son of Bishop Tanner, of the Afro-American church, he studied under Thomas Eakins, and later under Laurens and Constant in Paris, where he now resides. The Luxembourg Museum, Paris, possesses one of his works.
Room No. 118.
Max Bohm, a Gold Medal winner, is represented on Wall A by a large canvas showing a group of figures on the seashore. There is also an interesting marine by Alexander Harrison on this wall. On Wall B there is a picture by one of the youngest of California artists, "Baby's Toilet," by Henry Varnum Poor, which is full of genuine strength, simply expressed.
Still another Gold Winner is on Wall C, W. B. Hamilton, a Spring landscape, subtle and poetical.
On Wall B hangs a landscape by H. J. Breuer, whose work we have met in other rooms,
Room No. 120.
George Bellows is the outstanding name in this room, which contains also the work of several men of the younger and more modern tendencies. Bellows is the winner of a Gold Medal. His work hangs together on Wall C with the exception of one canvas, a scene in a New York excavation, which hangs on Wall B. Bellows is one of the most interesting of the younger men. Sturdily, almost stubbornly independent, he has always refused to yield to commercial reasons, on to compromise with his own experimental nature. Born in Ohio in 1882, a pupil of Henri in New York, his training and his interests are thoroughly American. For some years he supported himself during the summers by playing base ball professionally, doing his painting in the winter - a fact which explains why so many of his canvases are studies of winter scenes.
Three other Gold Medal winners not previously mentioned are represented in this room. One is W. B. Hamilton, on Wall A (No. 4407); the other is Myron Barlow, who is represented on Wall C (Nos. 4427, 4431 and 4435) ; and the third is Waldo Murray, a pupil of Sargent and a portrait painter of increasing prestige (No. 4429).
One Wall A the pictures by Samuel Halpert and Rockwell Kent are typical examples of two divergent tendencies in the most modern movements. Halpert (No. 4493) represents the new school of synthetic realism. The Kent - the strange picture showing a group of figures in a most singular landscape belongs to the imaginative school.
Water Colors and Illustrations.
Rooms Nos. 26, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42 and 119 are devoted to water colors, drawings in various mediums, and illustrations.
The works of Howard Pyle occupy Rooms 40 and 41, but these are dealt with in the chapter concerned with the rooms of individual artists.
Medals of Honor were awarded in this group to the following artists: Charles H. Woodhury, Lillian Westcott Hale, F. Walter Taylor, Henry Muhrmann, Frank Mura and Laura Coombs Hills.
Gold Medals were awarded to Charles E. Heil, Alice Schille, George Hallowell, F. Luis Mora, Henry B. Snell, Jules Guerin, N. C. Wyeth, Henry McCarter and Arthur I. Kellar.
Room No. 26.
In this room there is a group of F. Walter Taylor's Medal of Honor work on Wall A. Taylor is a Philadelphia artist, who has illustrated many books, among them works by Henry Van Dyck, Mrs. Humphrey Ward, and Margaret Deland.
Two popular magazine illustrators, both of whom have won Silver Medals, Jessie Willcox Smith and Elizabeth Shippen Green, are also on this wall.
Two winners of Gold Medals, N. C. Wyeth and Henry McCarter, are on Walls C and D respectively.
Room No. 35.
Charles E. Heil is the central interest of Wall A, his Gold Medal work being placed there. Everett Shinn, a vigorous and brilliant artist, has a very interesting and varied group near by.
Lucia K. Mathews, a California artist, winner of a Silver Medal, is on Wall B, together with C. J. Taylor and Mateo Sandona, members of the jury.
On Wall C a very original note is struck by the paintings on silk, in the ultra modern mode, by Marguerite Zorach. E. Spencer Mackey and Charles F. Heil complete the interest.
Room No. 37.
Charles H. Woodbuiy, another Medal of Honor artist (whose work in oil also won a Gold Medal), is represented on Wall A.
Anna B. W. Kindlund, a winner of a Silver Medal, is on the same wall.
On Wall B are two other Silver Medalists, H. D. Murphy and George Alfred Williams. George Walter Dawson, of the jury, occupies Wall C. There are also a large number of miniatures in cases in this room and in Room 40.
Room No. 40.
In this room, on Wall B, is a group by Lillian Westcott Hale, winner of Medal of Honor. George H. Hallowell, Gold Medalist, is also represented here, together with Alexander Robinson, the latter showing a brilliant group of oriental subjects.
The work of Jules Guerin, Chief of Color in the Division of Works of the Exposition, is on Wall D.
Room No. 119.
Henry Muhrmann's Medal of Honor work is found in this room, a remarkable group in black and white drawings on Wall A. Many of Charles W. Woodbury's Panama Canal drawings are also here, on Wall D. Woodbury shares the distinction of the Medal of Honor class. On Wall B hang two impressive charcoal studies by Xavier Martinez.