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Part VII. Diseases of Animals[1]

What Is a "Very Light Diet"?

In the case of sick animals, a "very light diet" is sometimes prescribed. What is a "very light diet"?

A "very light diet" consists of just enough nutritive elements to barely support the actual needs of an animal. As there is such a wide range of rations and amounts, it may be said that a "very light diet" in any specific case would be just about one-half what that animal has been used to having. This slim ration would do no harm for a period of two weeks.

Old Wire Cut Swells.

We have a colt cut on wire just below the fetlock on one of her front feet, about a year ago It is all healed up now but the foot just above the hoof tends to swell up and cause the animal to limp. We have relieved this twice by the application of liniment, but it is appearing again. Could this be due to some other reason, perhaps such as rheumatism?

Evidently a foreign substance remained in the wound and is still inside. The animal should be examined by a competent veterinarian and this substance removed, as it will never be right till this is done.

Colt Has Sore Jaw.

I have a colt that has a sore under its jaw, where the halter strap goes, the size of a quarter. There is a scab which is partly mattered. When I feel the sore there seems to be a lump 2 inches in diameter on the bone. It does not seem to hurt the colt and is not noticeable. The colt's blood does not seem to be in good condition.

Give this colt half an ounce Fowler's Solution once a day. Heal up the sore with carbolated vaseline and do not allow anything to rub it till healed.

A Staggering Colt.

A mule colt a week old began to stagger and fall, later it could not get up, hind parts and legs very swollen. Seems better at times. Other times has weak spells. Appetite good.

This is due to congenital troubles of the circulatory system of the posterior extremity. Stimulate circulation by friction and arrange so it cannot injure itself by falling. The colt will probably recover, unless the parts become gangrenous through circulatory insufficiency.

Pull Colt's Teeth.

We have a four-year-old colt that has not shed her first set of front teeth, and the second set are coming out above them. Should we have them taken out, or will they drop out?

Pull out the milk teeth.

Ringbone on Colt.

My colt has a hard growth just above the hoof on the hind leg. Sometimes it goes lame for a week or so but most of the time it is all right. It has been that way ever since it was a little colt.

Your colt has a ringbone, due to an injury and should be fired and blistered by a graduate veterinarian. He should use a needle point iron so no blemish will remain after the operation.

For a Congenital Crooked Leg.

I have a colt five days old which was born with a crooked foreleg. It cannot place it on the ground, but holds it leaning backwards. I have been rubbing the cords four or five times a day and it places its foot on the ground a little now. Would it be a good plan to put splints on it or would the rubbing be enough?

There is an operation for this trouble which can be done by a qualified veterinarian. It should be done right away to bring the best results. If this fails or can't be done, splints often bring relief. Stretch the limb to its normal position, wrap limb with cotton and bandage with muslin; between each layer of the bandage apply plaster of paris. Put on at least five layers. This bandage should be reinforced with strips of tin bent to fit the leg. Leave bandage on not longer than seven days and reapply if necessary.

Tonic for an Old Horse.

I have an old mare that has been in poor condition four or five months. I feed her barley and stock food twice a day along with good oat hay. She also runs on pasture. She eats everything readily enough, except the hay. I have had her mouth examined by two different veterinarians who say it is all right.

You have very probably stated the trouble when you say she is old. The following tonic may help her and is worth trying: Powdered nux vomica 2 ounces, potassium nitrate 2 ounces, powdered ginger 2 ounces, powdered iron sulphate 2 ounces, powdered fenugreek 8 ounces. Give two ounces of this in the feed twice a day.

Cracks in Frog.

On the surface the frog in our mare's foot looks sound, but in places just under the surface it is sort of honeycombed and little cracks and crevices extend from 1/4 to of an inch in the foot. She isn't lame and it does not seem to be sore. I am now keeping her feet as dry as possible.

Clean out the cracks and crevices in the frog, and pack them with powdered calomel once a day. Also keep feet as dry as possible. This treatment should be kept up till cracks show tendency to grow out sound and all odor leaves.

Kill Horses With Farcy.

What can be done for farcy in horses?

Farcy or glanders in horses should be treated only by destruction of the animal and either burning or burying the carcass deeply.

Persistent Neck Scab.

My horse has a black scab on the back of her neck. It seems to have a root.

This is sitfast. Cut it out with a sharp knife and paint it with tincture of iodine daily until healed.

Bony Growth Under Lip.

I have a fine horse colt that has a growth inside his underlip, between lip and the gum. It is a soft, bony substance. Has been cut out twice but grows back again.

This is a benign cancerous growth which should stay removed if all its substance is taken out when operated on. After removal, it should be painted with tincture of iodine two or three times a day until healed.

Antidote for Formaldehyde Burning.

I used formaldehyde which was prescribed for thrush, which worked well and I thought the horse was cured. I find he has ham-like growths growing out of the frog behind on each foot, and when I work him, he becomes quite tender-footed.

You used your formaldehyde too strong. Get some butter of antimony and paint on growths every two or three days until they disappear.

Probably Lockjaw.

My neighbor has two horses afflicted in the hind legs, which seem stiff and sore; next they seem weak in the couplin and stiff in the neck. Two days later both were down perfectly helpless; lay and lashed with their forefeet. They neither eat nor drink. Please give us treatment, and is it contagious?

The trouble is more than likely lock jaw, and the animals are very probably dead before treatment can be applied. This is not a contagious disease.

Catarrhal Enteritis.

I have a mare that is 12 to 15 years old that has been scouring for several months. She looks healthy in every way and her eyes are good. She has a ravenous appetite and wants to drink about twice as much as when she is not scouring. Her hide is not very tight and she is shedding fairly well. There is almost a constant rumbling inside and she passes gas and water every few minutes.

The horse has catarrhal enteritis. Give her six tablets Abbotts' sulpho-carbolates compound three times a day crushed up in feed or dissolved in water. Also one ounce salol twice daily with one ounce powdered ginger.

Horse Urination.

My horse will get into the position of urinating from one to five or six times previous to urinating. I have given an ounce of saltpetre in the feed twice a day for two weeks. Shall I continue the saltpetre treatment, and for how long?

Discontinue the saltpetre and give the following: Urotrepin 4 ounces, Sodium salicylate 4 ounces, Sodium Benzoinate 4 ounces, Fluid extract Uva Usi 8 ounces; water enough to make one pint. Give one ounce three times a day.

Treatment for a Cough.

A horse has a bad cough which does not seem to be epizootic, for she does not run at the nose, although she coughs up a thick matter.

Take Glyco-heroin, 8 ounces; cod liver oil, 6 ounces; spirits camphor, 2 ounces. Mix, give tablespoonful three times daily. Wet hay, feed from the ground.

Horse Caught Cold.

Can a young horse catch cold while steady at work if not very warm, by drinking cold water? I have been hauling fruit a distance of nine miles and as I left home very early in. the morning my horses would not drink much, so I water them when about half way. I did not suppose, as he was not allowed to stand after drinking, that he would take cold. Also, what is the cure?

It is highly improbable that an animal would get a cold under the conditions you mention. Give 5 grains potassium bichromate in one ounce of water three times a day.

Horse's Throat Sore.

I have a horse that runs from the bowels. He will also stand and drink for fifteen or twenty minutes without taking his mouth from the water; he eats every thing put before him.

If you watch this horse closely while he is drinking you will notice that the water is returning through his nose. He has pharyngitis or sore throat. Syringe his mouth and throat out four or five times daily with a saturated solution of potassium chlorate. Also have his teeth examined by a competent man.

Treatment for "Roaring."

Whenever our young horse runs or works she has a thick, heavy breathing. A swelling first broke out under her throat and then one formed on her breast, which we had lanced. Otherwise, she seems to be in perfect health. What can be done for her?

Apply a good blister to the throat such as the following: Powdered cantharides, 2 drachms; red iodide of mercury, 2 drachms; lard, 3 ounces. Rub this in well and wash off at the end of forty-eight hours, and apply vaseline. If this does not relieve trouble in one month the only remedy left will be an operation for roaring, which should not be performed until animal is six years old.

"Strangles" or Distemper.

We have two horses which first had sore throat and a slight discharge which did not last long, and a cough. After a week the legs began to swell from the feet to the body, then came a slight swelling about the head. One of them broke out under the jaw before swelling began. They have bright eyes and eat well.

The trouble is strangles, or colt distemper. A veterinarian should be called early in the disease as many cases result fatally from complications such as pneumonia, dropsy, or multiple abscesses. Feed only invalid food (hot bran mashes, grass, etc.). Give a heaping tablespoonful of granular sal nitre three times daily in bran mash and inject leucocytic extract once daily.

Foreign Body in Eye.

I have a horse with a discharge of yellow mucus from the eye. I found some small hairs in the corner of the affected eye and these were surrounded by grainy and hardened mucus. Washing the eye does not help the trouble.

Careful examination after benumbing the eye with a four per cent solution of cocaine, will reveal a foreign body in the eye, or the lachrymal conduit (a tube which carries the tears from the eye to the nose). If you raise the nostril and look inside the nose you will find the lower opening of this conduit. Bathe the eye several times daily with cold boracic acid water, a teaspoonful of boracic to one quart of water.

Perhaps Not "Moon-Blindness."

The eyelids of my horse become puffed and discharge a watery substance as soon as warm weather comes on. every summer. The local veterinarian calls it "Moon blindness" and says there is no cure. During cool weather the trouble disappears. Bathing with cold water twice a day seems to keep the trouble in check to a certain extent. During winter and spring the animal is up on the bit at all times, but while still keeping in good order, becomes lazy as soon as the eyes begin to run.

Moon blindness is incurable, but as you have not given sufficient symptoms to make a positive diagnosis of this trouble, try the following treatment: 1 ounce of 1 per cent atropin solution, 1 ounce 1 per cent eserine solution. Place a few drops of one of these in the eye once a day and the following day use the other, alternating the solutions daily. Also place a piece the size of a pea of the following ointment in the eye twice a day and rub in: 1 ounce 2 per cent yellow oxide of mercury ointment.

Moon-Blindness of Horse.

I have a horse that goes blind every year in the spring. This spring he has gone blind twice. For a few weeks he goes entirely blind-the pupil turns white. Can anything be done to keep him from going entirely blind?

Your horse has moon blindness or periodic ophthalmia, which is incurable and in most cases produces blindness. A remedy which is of some benefit consists of a fifty per cent solution of argyrol. Place a few drops of this in the eye several times a day during the attacks.

Inflammation of Joint.

After traveling seven or eight miles, my horse goes lame in the right hind leg. When she stops she holds the foot up as though tired or it aches. I can find no pebbles, bruises or other causes. I can't find just where the trouble lies.

Your horse has gonitis or inflammation of a joint. Without an examination it is impossible to state what joint; you will have to determine this for yourself or employ a veterinarian to do it. To the affected joint apply tincture of iodine once daily for several weeks and give animal a rest while doing this.


My mare has become very stiff in the shoulders. She is thin and looks twice her age. When standing she seems to be in pain and is continually shifting her weight from one forefoot to the other. She stands with her forelegs slanting from her body and her breast deeply sunken.

The mare has been foundered. She should be kept standing in a mud hole or running stream five or six hours daily and given a heaping tablespoon of saltpeter three times daily, in a bran mash. The disease is caused from indigestion. Her teeth should be filed and a good stomachic administered twice daily. A qualified veterinarian should be consulted, as founder of several days' standing without treatment may result in incurable chronic founder.

Treatment for Sweeney.

I have a horse that has a sweeneyed shoulder. Can you suggest treatment?

The best treatment in the case of sweeney is repeated mild blisters. Try the following blisters: Powdered cantharides 4 drachms, lard 2 ounces. Rub well into shoulder for twenty minutes to half an hour. After forty-eight hours grease well with lard and wash off with soap and warm water. Reapply in four weeks' time. If you care to do so daily very good results can be gotten from rubbing with a good stimulating liniment into affected parts for about half an hour to three-quarters of an hour. This, however, takes time and a considerable amount of labor to get results.

Sore Navel.

I have a six-year-old horse which has a sore navel for four or five months; does not seem to hurt him, but will not heal; does not bleed nor discharge pus.

Apply the following mixture once daily: Tincture iodine, 4 ounces; lysol, 2 ounces; tincture benzoin, 2 drachms; oil cinnamon, 1 drachm.

Caused by Bad Teeth.

A mare six years old, was all right till recently, when she fell off in flesh, lost her spirits and seemed like an old hack. She has a craving appetite but her food does her no good. She is weak and thin, hair shaggy and rough.

This is due to projecting or loose molars. Have the best veterinary expert dress and treat the mouth after which use the following: Nux vomica, pulverized, 2 ounces; iron sulphate, 1 ounce; pul. gentian root, 2 ounces. Mix and make sixteen powders, give two daily.

Severing of Tendon.

One of my horses has recently been cut a few inches above fetlock joint on inside of right hind leg. The attending veterinarian said one of the tendons is cut and the other partially. When stepping on foot fetlock nearly touches the ground. Am treating her as directed by veterinarian. Will the horse ever recover?

The tendon is severed. Recovery will depend on the treatment. It will be advisable to apply a soft bandage to the leg and cover this with electrician's tape to support the leg while the tendons are uniting. This bandage should be changed every few days and the wound dressed.

Salivary Fistula.

My horse developed a swelling in his throat and left jaw, which on blistering and poulticing discharged pus and barley beards. It has healed over with the exception of a small place where saliva is discharged freely when the horse eats. The liquid spurts out in a stream the size of a straw, especially when the horse is eating grain.

The abscess was caused from barley beards working up into the gland and has resulted in what is known as salivary fistula. The saliva will escape in great quantities while the animal is masticating the food. This requires an operation to close the fistula and direct the saliva in its proper channel, into the mouth; when this is done by a qualified veterinarian the horse will be easily cured. In the meantime wash out the opening twice daily with lysol water, teaspoonful to one quart of warm water.

Canker of the Feet.

I have a mare that has canker in both front feet. Two veterinarians pronounced it "Canker," and treated her for it, but she is no better. Is there a cure for it, and if so, what is it?

Canker of the feet is a bacterial origin and the infection will spread to all four feet, if not watched carefully. This disease is successfully treated by carefully cleansing the stall floor and keeping it clean and dry and using a strong disinfectant, such as Chloride of Lime, sprinkled about the floor. Use a four per cent solution of formaldehyde, to wash out the foot twice daily, getting the solution well into the cracks. Even under this treatment it takes some time to cure this disease.

Worms in Horses.

Will you kindly advise me of a remedy for worms in horses?

You do not state kind of worms. Try the following, however: Tartar emetic 1 1/2 ozs., powdered gentian root 2 ozs., powdered anise 2 ozs. Mix and divide into twelve powders and give one powder twice daily on back of tongue. When all have been given, give the horse the following drench on an empty stomach (after 12 hours' fasting at least) : Raw linseed oil one pint, oil of turpentine and sweet spirits of nitre, 2 ozs. of each. The above is a mild physic and the horse must not be exposed to chill or worked or given much cold water.

Scours of Mare.

What will stop my mare from scouring? She is quite all right for the first two miles. Then she starts to scour. She has been doing this a month or more.

This is due to indigestion. First give a mild physic of raw linseed oil, one pint, and one ounce oil of turpentine, on an empty stomach. Care must be taken in administration of a drench to horses. Do not try to hurry the operation. When bowels have returned to normal, which should be 12 to 16 hours after drench commences to act, give one of the following powders twice daily in feed for about two weeks: Sodium bicarbonate, 3 oz.; powdered nux vomica, 2 drams; powdered gentian root, 1 1/2 oz.; powdered anise, 2 oz. Mix and divide into six powders.

For Ring Bone.

A horse nine years old has a ringbone on its forefoot of about one year's standing. Can it be cured or lameness reduced?

Have this fired and blistered. If this does not entirely relieve the lameness, have animal shod with a roller shoe which will make it serviceable.

Horse With Mange.

I recently bought a mare which the seller told me had chicken lice. I am convinced the trouble is worse than that. Scratching, she threatens to tear the stable down. Tail is rubbed almost bare at base, and mane is somewhat rubbed by violent scratching.

The horse has scabies. Treat in the following manner: Get some liquor cresolis compositus and make solution in water, 2 1/2 ounces to the gallon of water. Wash your animal off thoroughly with this, being sure to remove all scabs and crusts. Have your druggist put up the following: Oil of tar, 1 ounce; flowers of sulphur, 1 ounce; oil Cajaput, 1 ounce; neutral oil, enough to make one quart. After animal has dried from the washing, rub this in well all over animal and repeat the above about every ten days. Two such treatments should cure your animal.

Acne, a Skin Disorder.

I am sending scabs from my horse. Please tell me what the disease is and what to do for it.

This is Acne. Give Fowler's solution of arsenic in 1/2-oz. doses three times a day and give plenty of cooling substances in the diet, such as bran, greens, etc.

Fast Growing Warts on Horse.

What will cure warts on my horse? They are growing rapidly and becoming a great disfigurement.

Apply a five per cent solution of chromium trioxide daily with a brush.

Fowler's Solution Safe Under Directions.

To a horse with itching skin I have given one ounce of Fowler's solution daily until the horse has had twenty ounces. He is somewhat better, but not cured, as he still itches and those little postules are still coming through. Skin and hair come off, and a little fluid runs out of same, but is getting better all the time. I would like to know if it is dangerous to give too much or too long of this Fowler solution of arsenic.

There is no danger in giving the arsenic if given according to directions. Use the following externally in conjunction: Olive oil, 16 oz.; spirits camphor, 2 oz.; Pearson's Creoline, 1 oz.; kerosene, 3 oz.; oil cedar, 3 oz. Mix and apply to itchy spots once daily, after washing with sheep dip. Whitewash stall very often and scrub harness.

Swelled Ankle.

An eight-year-old horse about a year ago got lame in his hind leg by a swelling, just above and back of the ankle joint. It looks very much like wind galls and feels soft. It gets quite large at times if I work him hard.

This is bursitis and tendonitis, one of the meanest kinds of lameness to treat. Put on a high heel shoe, no toe; shorten the toe of hoof and apply a cantharides blister; simple cerate, 3 oz.; cantharides, 1/2 oz. Cut the hair and apply thoroughly. After four days, wash off the blister and grease once daily. It would be better to have a veterinarian cauterize with a hot iron. The horse should be put on pasture two or three months.

An Unclean Wound.

When I took my horse in from the field where there were fir limbs covering the ground, I noticed a hole on his leg about the size of a 25-cent piece. I soaked a wrapper in cold water and put it on every night for about a week. The leg swelled from knee to the hoof about three times its size. Proud flesh started right away, so I blistered it good four times about every 10 days and then I kept it greased and it healed up. But it would discharge pus and a watery substance about every month for one or two days, then would stop and heal over again.

Your horse has a foreign body in the wound, either a piece of the fir limb that caused the trouble or a broken spicule of bone. Thoroughly sponge out the wound with a two per cent solution of cresol and wash your hand in some. Insert your finger into the wound, and see if you can feel this foreign substance and remove it. The wound will not heal up as long as it remains, but as soon as removed will heal, if you wash it out daily with the above antiseptic solution.

Cracks Below Joint.

My mare has cracks open under the joint on both front feet, then it will scab over.

Mix the following: Zinc oxide, 4 ounces, iodoform 1/2 ounce, glycerine 2 ounces, carbolic acid 2 drachms, and apply twice daily after thoroughly washing with cresoleum water and castile soap. Remove every vestige of scab and hair from about the sores.

Hock Joint Cut.

A brood mare got cut with a barb wire on the hock joint and kept lame, and soon did not put her foot down to the ground. Her hip is losing its flesh and the joint is large.

The animal has a wound in one of the worst places on the body to heal properly. Keep her tied up and as quiet as possible to prevent movement of the joint. Clean up wound with hydrogen peroxide, then paint it twice daily with following mixture: Turpentine 4 ounces, raw linseed oil 4 ounces, tincture aloes 2 ounces, nitric acid 1 ounce, sulphuric acid 1 ounce. It will require several months to heal this wound. The shrinking of the hip is due to the fact that she is not using that leg.

For an Old Wire Cut.

We had a young mare cut about eight months ago by a wire, from the shoulder to a little above the knee, and laid it open to the bone, not cutting an artery. Had a veterinary fix it up; it commenced to heal, when she tore it open with her teeth. After that we kept her tied up in the barn, but just as soon as it would get partly healed she would hurt it again. For the first three months she wasn't stiff in the knee, but I think standing on a board floor so long has caused it to be stiff, for the knee was not hurt.

Paint the leg with tincture of iodine once daily. Paint from just below the knee to the elbow, but do not paint just back of knee in the joint. Give animal moderate exercise and continue the treatment from two to three weeks. If skin becomes badly blistered, discontinue treatment for a few days and apply vaseline to the surface.

Fistula on Horse's Shoulder.

Over a year ago my horse turned the buggy over and was rammed with one of the broken shafts between his hind legs. After he recovered from the wound, a swelling grew from the wound up half way on his belly and then went back again. Soon his shoulder began to swell and he was quite stiff in the injured leg. Then a place formed on the swelling which seemed full of pus. I took him to the veterinary hospital and they opened it. The swelling still runs a bluish pus, but he walks almost as though there was nothing the matter and eats well and is fat.

This is the result of a so-called cold abscess being given improper drainage, which has resulted in a fistula. There is a pus pocket lower than the external opening. To effect a cure, this pocket must be opened at its lowest point so that no pus can accumulate and drainage be complete. A qualified veterinarian should be called to do this.

Swelling on Horse's Thigh.

A swelling came on my filly's thigh about the size of a fist. After about three days, it broke and has been running since. The pus exuded is of creamy color and consistency and occasionally carries a little blood. Then another swelling, somewhat smaller, arose about four inches above the original and for a while drained through the old break. However, it does not drain now, and is swelled tight and about ready to break itself.

These abscesses may have so many causes that it is impossible without an examination to give the precise cause. Get a syringe and wash out abscess twice daily with a 2 per cent solution of liquor cresolis compositus. Explore the abscess with your finger to be sure there is no pocket formed from which there is not good drainage, and also for foreign bodies. Have a veterinarian test this mare for glanders and destroy her if she reacts.

Mule in Poor Condition.

I have a mule which did not shed off this spring and is in poor condition. His water seems bad.

Fix the teeth and give the following in a bran mash once a day: Nux vomica pulo 3 ounces, iron sulphate 2 ounces, soda bicarbonate 6 ounces, sulphate magnesia 4 ounces and pulo aniseed 2 ounces. Mix thoroughly and give a heaping teaspoonful twice daily in mash.

Mule With Rheumatism.

My eight-months-old mule seems to be sore all over and stiff. He eats and drinks well, but sometimes cannot get up without help. He was weaned about a month ago.

This mule is rheumatic. Give 2 drachms sodium salicylate and 2 drachms hexarnethylamine twice a day.

Mule Lame at Stifle.

I have a mule lame in the left hind leg. She seems to be out of joint in the stifle. She only bears her weight on that leg a little when she walks.

If you are sure your mule is lame in the stifle, clip hair off for about six inches around the joint and apply the following blister: Pulverized cantharides, 2 drachms; red iodide of mercury 2 drachms, benzoinated lard 3 ounces. Rub this in well over the clipped area for ten to fifteen minutes. Tie the mule up so he cannot bite the blister and wash blister off in 48 hours with warm soap and water, then apply vaseline to blistered area. Rest mule one month after blistering.

Ruptured Mule.

How shall I treat an 18-month-old mule colt with a rupture on the median line, midway from the navel back! Rupture has been apparent for a year, gets no larger and can be entirely reduced by pressure from the hand.

The animal will outgrow this. If he should not it can be easily removed by an operation.

Mule With Rectal Tumor.

I have a large gray mule about ten years old, that developed a growth on her rectum about six months ago that grew till it was the size of an egg, and then broke and discharged a black pus. The growth is now as large as one's fist, with a cavity in it. The mule is in good condition.

Gray mules and horses are subject to this trouble, called melano sarcoma. There is no cure. The tumors gradually become larger, but do not affect the health of the animal unless their growth interferes with some of the vital functions. Interference with the growth only aggravates the trouble.

White Diarrhoea in Calves.

Our calves die within 24 to 48 hours from the time they are born. The cows are healthy. It seems to be a sort of a white or yellow diarrhoea, thin watery passages of a light yellow and white color.

The calves have white diarrhoea. The disease enters the body by two channels, the navel and the mouth, but principally the latter. Paint navels immediately after birth with tincture of iodine. If calves are allowed to suck, take first milk from udder by hand, wash and dry udder and teats with a two per cent solution of cresol before calves are allowed to suck. Clean up stables and feed-troughs and disinfect them with same solution. Let as much sunlight get to your floors as possible. The above will have a strong tendency to prevent disease. Also, do not allow calves a full ration; cut down their amount of feed one-half. To infected calves, give the following: Fluid extract of ginger 2 ounces, tincture opium 2 ounces, formaldehyde, 64 minimums, and water enough to make a quart. Give 2 ounces of this mixture in one pint of water twice the first day, withholding all feed. If necessary, give two ounces medicine in one pint milk, twice the second day.

Another medicine for infected calves is three tablets sulpho carbonates three times a day.

For an Over-Fed Calf.

I have a Jersey calf sixteen days old that seems to have lost her appetite. She mopes around and will have to be forced to eat. She has been having from one and one-half to two quarts of skim milk three times a day for a week. Today I cut down her milk to one quart and put in a raw egg. She seemed to be weak and thin from the start, but seemed lively enough.

You have been overfeeding this calf. Give 4 ounces castor oil, and follow with this: Fluid extract ginger 2 ounces, fluid extract nux vomica 1/2 ounce, fluid extract gentian 2 ounces, alcohol, 2 ounces, and simple syrup to make 8 ounces. Give one ounce of this twice a day in one pint whole milk.

Calves Lose Eyesight.

The eyes of my yearling calves become mattered, sore and inflamed, and the animals almost lose their sight. Oftentimes one eye becomes entirely out. The disease has now spread among the younger calves.

Your calves have an infectious conjunctivitis. In either case, instill a few drops of a 50 per cent solution of argyrol twice a day.

Calves With a Cold.

I have lost two calves. They caught cold which settled in their throat and made it very painful for them to swallow or breathe; also had fever.

For calves affected as you describe, apply mustard liniment to the throat daily, rubbing in well. Give internally the following: Fluid extract nux vomica, 1 ounce; fluid extract belladonna, one-half ounce; fluid extract ginger, 2 ounces; aromatic spirits of ammonia, 8 ounces, and water enough to make a pint. Dose: one ounce twice a day in one ounce of water.

Pneumonia in Calves.

I have lost several calves. The animals scour a little at first, but this subsides with dieting. Some have a thick discharge from nostrils, but this stops before they die; others do not have this symptom. They eat until they die and look well except that they are droopy. Post-mortem shows the lungs with dark spots, some quite large. They do not penetrate the lung, but just show on the outside. A few have shown small sore places under the tongue near the front teeth; no other sores in the mouth. Stomach is generally full but soft; no inflammation here or in the intestines.

These calves have contagious pleuro-pneumonia, or lung plague. There is no treatment which will cure this trouble. Separate all sick from healthy animals. Thoroughly disinfect daily barns and buildings, using two per cent solution of cresol. Be sure also to wash out and disinfect all feed-troughs or racks from which they feed before and after feeding. Give all the calves one dose of the following, once a day: Guiacol, 2 ounces; aromatic spirits of ammonia, 1 pint; spirits of camphor, 8 ounces, and fluid extract of ginger, 6 ounces; dose, 2 ounces.

Navel Rupture Requires Operation.

I have four calves, age two and three months, which are ruptured in the navel; have been that way about a month.

Have a competent veterinarian operate on the calves for the ruptures. This offers the only remedy.

Lung Worms in Calves.

Give me a remedy for lung-worms in calves. Last year I lost a number, and I have some now that have commenced to cough.

There is no absolutely certain remedy for this trouble. Two of the best treatments are as follows: Get a hypodermic syringe which will hold two drachms. Force the needle into the interior of the trachea or wind pipe, and inject two drachms of the following: ether, 2 ounces; oil of turpentine, 1 drachm; or use benzine in 2 drachm doses. Continue this treatment daily until symptoms are relieved.

Convulsions in Healthy Calf.

I have just lost the finest month-old calf I had. I fed milk until it was two weeks old, then fed two handfuls oilcake meal with about a quart of milk, thinning the gruel with boiling water. This I have given the past two weeks, the calf apparently doing fine and eating with great relish. Today I discovered it lying down in violent convulsions, which lasted until death three hours later. Until then it had been perfectly healthy, and in fine condition.

If you had opened the calf you would probably have found a nail, wire, or other such substance penetrating one of his vital organs. Calves are prone to lick up such things, with the results you have experienced.

Faces and Necks Swelled.

One of our calves breathed hard and had a swelling under the chin. Now the swelling has gone clear down between the front legs and is a great hard bunch. It is also going up the sides of its face. It grits its teeth and its nose is dry.

Your calves are probably affected with liver fluke worms. An autopsy will be necessary for a positive diagnosis. There is no cure. Prevention may be had by a change of water supply as it is through the water they become infected.

Bloody Urine.

A heifer calf for the last day or two has been passing a mixture which appears to be about one-third blood mixed with the urine.

This may come from the kidneys or bladder and is probably due to an ulcerative condition of the mucous membrane. Adrenaline chloride 1 in 1,000 solution. Dose: 1 teaspoon to 1/2 cup salt water once every third day. Cease giving if the blood stops.

Mucous Discharge and Cough.

Three-months-old calves discharge whitish or clear mucous from nose; have slight cough; lose strength rapidly.

Put calves in closed room and heat vapo-cresoline so they will have to breathe the fumes. Bathe with hydrogen dioxide. Separate the sick from the healthy ones. Give daily injections of Archibald's Leucocytic Extract.

Treatment for Blackleg.

What is the cause and cure for blackleg?

Blackleg is caused by the invasion of the animal's system by a form of bacillus anthracis. There is no cure for the disease, the only thing to be done being to prevent the disease as much as possible by vaccinating all young cattle. This should be done by a qualified veterinarian if one is at all procurable.

Creolin for Calf Lice.

What is the most satisfactory method to rid calves and young heifers of lice?

Wash animals all over with a 2 per cent creolin solution three times at intervals of four days; 2 1/2 teaspoonfuls liquor cresolis compositus to the pint of water will give a 2 per cent creolin solution.

Pica or Depraved Appetite.

Whenever my cow manages to get loose in the stable she licks the stable floor with her tongue. She gets plenty of salt and has a salt stone.

This is pica or depraved appetite. Place in separate containers the following substances and allow the cows free access to them,: iron sulphate, powdered sulphate, black antimony, salt, and saltpeter.

Tonic for a Cow.

I have a cow in poor health as her hair looks bad and she is thin. She is a heavy milker on green feed, but does not milk long on dry feed. She has a running at the nose but does not cough.

Have this cow tested for tuberculosis by a graduate veterinarian. If she reacts, dispose of her, as there is no cure for tuberculosis. If she does not react, give her the following tonic: Powdered nux vomica, 1 ounce; powdered gentian, 2 ounces; powdered iron sulphate, 1 ounce; powdered potassium nitrate, 1 ounce; powdered ginger, 1 ounce; powdered fenugreek, 2 ounces. Give 1 ounce of this mixture in feed twice daily.


My cow eats well but while eating and afterwards while chewing her cud, she belches, making a noise like a forcing cough and throws up a bunch of food chewed very fine. She seems in good health otherwise.

This is fermentation due to indigestion. Give a heaping tablespoonful of soda bicarbonate twice daily and feed dry food in preference to slop.

Cow With Chronic Indigestion.

I have a young cow which I dare not feed any hay, at all, neither green nor dry, because she bloats every time I feed her. I just feed her linseed meal, and I had tried to get her to eat alfalfa meal, but she will not eat it, nor bran. I have to drench her with bran, or at least I make her eat it by putting it down her, and I do the same with the linseed meal. I make a solution with it and pour it down her. The only thing she wants to eat is the hay. I sometimes get her to eat a little grain.

The cow has chronic indigestion. Give her two pounds of epsom salts in enough water to put it into solution. Have the following put up: Fluid extract ginger, 8 ounces; fluid extract nux vomica, 2 ounces; salicylate of sodium, 8 ounces; water, 8 ounces; and aromatic spirits of ammonia, enough to make one quart. Give two ounces of this twice a day before feeding.

Cows Not Breeding.

I have cows which do not conceive with same bull which gets calves with others. I am told that douching with slippery elm solution would correct acidity that might be in the mucous membrane.

Slippery elm will not overcome acidity nor help in your condition. Douche with a solution of potassium permanganate, 1 drachm, to water one gallon, daily for one week, then use 2 ounces sodium bicarbonate to one gallon of water daily up to the day preceding service and you will get results.

Sterility From Wound Injury.

I have a cow that calved a year ago. Occasionally for two weeks after calving she would discharge blood. Am unable to get her with calf again.

The animal was in all probability injured in the os uteri at the time of calving which would account for the discharge of blood. In all probability there has been a formation of "scar tissues" in the os which is not uncommon, and that this either closes the opening or contorts the neck in such a manner as to render fecundation impossible.

Comes in Heat Weekly.

A cow came in heat when her calf was a few weeks old and was served. She came in heat and was served twice since. Now she comes around about every seven days.

This cow very probably has cystic ovaries. Have a qualified veterinarian examine her. If this condition exists he can break them down and your animal will breed again.

Cow Doesn't Breed.

I have a six-year-old cow, fresh about three months ago. She has only been in heat once since coming fresh, and at that time I could not take her to the bull. Is there any way to bring her around?

The period of oestrum in the cow is every eighteen or twenty-one days. Ascertain whether or not a bull has visited your place unknown to you. If sure that the cow has not been with a bull, irrigate her vagina once daily for one week with a 1 per cent creolin solution and put her on a course of pulverized iron sulphate in two-drachm doses twice daily for two weeks.

Soda for Non-Conception.

My neighbor told me, in the case of my cow who could not conceive, to take one tablespoonful of baking soda when she came around again, dissolve it in a ten-pound pail of water as warm as you think a cow can stand it, and run your hand inside of her. Grease your hand so you won't make her sore. Clean out clean; then take your syringe, use entire 10-pound pail of water slowly so she can pass it out after each syringeful. Let her stand for one hour after washing. Then let the male serve her and you will not have any more trouble.

There is no doubt that bicarbonate of soda is of aid in certain instances of non-conception where the secretions of the vagina have an acid reaction. Semen is neutral or alkaline in reaction; and its contained spermatazoa are easily destroyed by acid substances. If from various causes the secretions of the female are of an acid nature, conception will not take place, but if these discharges are neutralized by the use of soda bicarbonate, conception will take place - provided the acid condition is the primary cause to be overcome.

Doesn't Come in Heat.

I have a cow that had a calf nine weeks ago, but never came in heat since. What could I do about it? The cow had milk fever and was not very well for some time after. She eats well and looks all right otherwise.

Under the circumstances her condition is natural. Give her plenty of good nourishing food and she will come in heat when nature is ready.

Soda Not Good for Bloat.

One of my best cows bloats on green feed. I don't like to stick her. Would not soda be good to make her belch up wind? If so, how much?

By all means do not give a bloated cow soda, as it will make her bloat worse than ever. The contents of a stomach filled with green feed is acid and the addition of soda will cause the generation of carbon dioxide gas. Try feeding this animal on half dry feed and the other half green and her trouble will stop.

Bleeds After Breeding.

I have a heifer which has never had a calf. She has been bred three times, and each time had a bloody discharge a day or two afterward.

This heifer probably has a growth in the genital canal. Only an examination can positively determine this. Have a competent veterinarian do this.

Loss of Milk Flow.

For about six weeks after freshening, my cow gave about five gallons of milk daily. Then, about two weeks ago she dropped in her milk in a couple of days to about a pint to a milking and then gradually came up till now she is giving a quart and a half.

Your cow undoubtedly has been, and may be still, suffering with some serious trouble, as a cow will not dry up in her milk in such a manner unless it is due to sickness, change of feed, or some other disturbance. Give the cow one to two pounds of epsom salts and one ounce of powdered ginger in a quart of warm water. Keep feed entirely away from her until she commences to purge, which should be about twelve hours, and then feed her lightly at first. After the bowels return to normal give the following twice daily for three days: mustard (ground) 6 ounces, powdered ammonia carbonate 6 ounces, powdered nux vomica 1 1/2 ounces, powdered gentian 6 ounces, and powdered ginger 6 ounces. Mix and divide into six powders, giving one powder in 1/2 pound of molasses and 2 pints of ale or beer.

Discharge From Cow After Calving.

I have a cow that held her afterbirth for a week or so. Since then she has a white discharge.

Douche out this cow twice a day with one gallon of water containing one drachm potassium permanganate until discharge ceases. Sometimes a cow may seem to clean and still retain a small piece of the after-birth when she calved. Continue douching until the flow stops and she comes in heat again.

Locating Source of Bloody Milk.

What shall I do for a cow which has blood in her milk?

This is caused from an injury. Let some milk from the first and last flow from each teat stand in different glasses, so that the gland giving the bloody milk can be detected, then inject half water and half hydrogen dioxide, thoroughly kneading the gland, after which milk the gland of every vestige of fluid. Repeat once daily for several days, then test with the glasses again.

Udder Trouble From Injuries.

I have a cow that was hooked in the bag and that quarter has become hard. I used a milk tube and soon got infection, resulting in some slight inflammation, and some hard lumps. These teats recently dried up completely. One of the remaining teats then started to give bloody milk, and has since been inflamed and is now dry. Today the last teat which I have tried to dry off is full of garget and the quarter, has become swollen.

Apply the following to the affected parts once only: oleate of mercury, 2 ounces; adeps lanum, 2 ounces. Give internally the following: red iodide of mercury, 90 grains; potassium iodide, 4 ounces, water enough to make one pint. Dose: one tablespoonful twice daily.

Lump on Udder.

I have a cow that got a swollen udder one night about a week ago and it turned a bluish color. Now the bluish color has gone, but it has settled in a hard lump on one side of her udder. It does not seem to interfere with the flow of her milk, and the cow seems to be in good health.

Your cow just escaped losing her udder with gangrenous mammitis. Treatment same as preceding cases.

Infectious Mammitis.

A few boils started on the udder, then in the upper part of one teat there came a lump, and after three or four milkings it was impossible to get any milk from the teat. Then I used a milk tube in that teat for about one week. Now the soreness and swelling has disappeared and the teat and udder seem in good condition. The milk looks natural and cream rises well. But when the cream is pushed back the milk is dark or bluish and watery.

The cow has an infectious mammitis and is evidently recovering. Milk at times contains blood in imperceptible quantities. Give your cow potassium iodide in two drachm doses twice a day for one week, dissolved in the drinking water.

Udder Caked.

I have a cow which started about a week ago to get a hard or caked udder. Her milk seems good, but I am afraid she will lose all of it.

Apply camphor liniment to the udder once daily, rubbed in well. Wrap udder in a blanket wrung out in hot water and kept warm for two or three hours. Give internally three or four times daily fluid extract belladonna one drachm, fluid extract phytolacca, one ounce, until trouble subsides.

May Be Tumor in Udder.

I have a cow that freshened a week ago. There is a lump in her udder, close to a front teat, which does not seem to increase in size, nor hinder the milk flow in any way. The cow, however, kicks and shows signs of discomfort when the teat is milked. She will allow the lump to be massaged without any signs of pain.

It is impossible to say definitely what this trouble is without examination. The lump may be a tumor and act mechanically to cause pain in milking, or the cow may have mastitis. A graduate veterinarian should be consulted.

Cow With Garget.

My cow had garget, or at least I doctored her for that and dried her up. She is fresh now and I want to know if her milk is good and if the trouble will return again. What is good for garget?

Garget is mammitis. The milk is fit for use only after the animal has recovered. One attack renders an animal liable to another to a certain extent. It is impossible to give a general treatment, as cases vary considerably, but as a general rule a purge, such as from one to two pounds of epsom salts with one ounce of powdered ginger and bathing the udder once or twice daily and rubbing in a mild liniment such as belladonna liniment, will effect a cure. Care must be taken to keep the animal in comfortable quarters and allow plenty of dry bedding.

Doesn't Hold Her Milk.

I have a Holstein cow, a very heavy milker, but she can't hold her milk from noon till night.

Milk your cow oftener.

Milk Squeezes Out.

My cow loses much of her milk by lying in such a position that it squeezes the milk out. She is naturally an easy milker.

Apply a saturated solution of tannic acid to the teats two or three times a day.

Enlargement of Udder.

What is the best treatment for cows' udders just before and after calving? Some of my heifers have the swelling extending along the milk veins nearly to the forelegs. The last one would not yield to hot water, so I put on some spavin cure, then greased it with lard; it reduced the swelling, but took off some of the skin.

It is natural for the udder to become enlarged before and after calving, and the (milk) veins are enlarged to carry the blood in sufficient quantity. Leave it alone and it will resume its normal size by itself. Give plenty of exercise to prevent milk fever and see that bowels are regular.

Dilator for Hard Milker.

I have a nice heifer which is a hard milker, and I want to know if there is anything one can do for that condition.

Spend ten minutes massaging the udder before milking. If the orifice of the milk duct in the teat is very small, send to the F. S. Betz Co., Hammond, Ind., for some teat plugs to gradually dilate the opening. Always boil plugs for fifteen minutes before inserting and keep them in a two per cent liq. cresolis comp. solution. Wash off teat with this before inserting. Insert after milking and allow to stay in between milkings. Specify catalog No. 1-15 Teat Plug No. 10L1006, get eight; they cost 25 cents apiece.

Heifer Holds Milk.

I have a heifer that has been fresh two months, and she holds her milk in the morning.

Thorough massage of the udder is the best remedy for a cow which holds up her milk. Spend ten minutes at this night and morning over a period of several weeks.

Leaky Teats.

Is there any preparation that can be applied to a cow's teat to stop leaking? Every afternoon before milking, milk drops very rapidly from three teats and from the other teat it runs in a light stream. She has a fair size bag, and I only take enough milk for own use, calf getting balance.

There is no preparation which, if applied to teats of cows, will prevent loss of milk. The best remedy is to milk often, say three times daily. Try removing the calf, and milking by hand entirely, feeding the calf from a pail.

Cracked Teats.

My heifer, fresh two days, has a cracked teat. It is between. the opening at lower part of teat and the udder. Milk exudes from crack when milking.

Heat a wire to red heat and cauterize crack, being sure to sear the tissues well into opening. Afterwards apply flexible collodion to prevent milk from leaking out and also to protect the wound.

Warts on Cows' Teats.

Give me some prescription that will remove warts from cows' teats.

Get a stick of lunar caustic, moisten warts and rub caustic stick over them once daily until they disappear. If warts are large, tie a thread tightly around their base and they will fall off in a few days, or they may be clipped off with scissors and the wound touched up once with caustic stick. If teats become very sore, apply some zinc ointment before and after milking.

Udder Treatment Before Calving.

I have a cow due to calve soon. I have been trying to put her dry for two weeks and her udder is swollen. I milk once a day and the milk comes out in lumps and strings. Her udder is very hot and feverish. What can I do to prevent milk fever?

Apply camphor liniment U. S. P. to the udder twice daily. Give your cow spirits of camphor internally in half ounce doses twice daily. A very light diet for a period of two weeks before calving has a tendency to prevent milk fever.

Milk Fever and Milk Flow.

Does milk fever lower a cow's production for the whole lactation period? My cow recovered and is in good flesh. How can I prevent milk fever?

Milk fever does not affect the milk flow except for a short time following an attack. It would seem that you had got hold of an unprofitable animal. There are no certain procedures to use to prevent milk fever.

Udder-Inflation Not a Preventive.

My cow had milk fever. A veterinary surgeon inflated her udder and now in milking I get a full stream until finished. Would it be a good idea to inflate any cow when or after she comes fresh, to insure against milk fever?

Do not give milk fever treatment to any animal except one affected with milk fever. There are too many dangers connected with the treatment to warrant its promiscuous use.

Guarding Against Abortion Infection.

A few days ago a neighbor told me that on the ranch I had rented the disease of abortion reigned here four to five years ago and the proprietor had to sell all his cows. Do you think it will infect my cattle in any way!

There is some danger of your herd becoming infected, as it is not definitely known how long the bacillus will remain alive on premises once infected. You will be safe, however, if you give your barns, feed racks, water troughs, and corrals a thorough disinfection with a five per cent liquor cresolis compositus solution. A spray is the best means of applying this. Also give each animal in your herd one ounce methylene blue daily for six days, then wait six days and begin again, giving one ounce every other day for six more doses. You will then be safe if your disinfection has been thorough or your herd does not become infected from outside sources.

Infectious Abortion.

I bred one of my cows to what was considered the best bull in the community, being a young, healthy animal. I have since learned diseased cows (abortion) were bred to this bull some months before my cow was bred. Will this affect my cow? If so, what treatment should I use?

This will very probably affect your cow. Give her one ounce methylene blue every day for six days, then discontinue for six days, and begin again, giving one ounce every other day until six more doses have been given. You need not worry about your other cows unless this one aborts, when it will be advisable to give each cow in the herd the above treatment. It would, however, be advisable to isolate this animal until she delivers her calf safely.

Aborter Has Discharge.

My cow which was due to calve Nov. 6 lost her calf about Oct. 11. The afterbirth did not come away until the sixth day. Since then she has a discharge of a yellowish substance. She has not increased in milk.

Wash this animal out once daily with a solution of cresolis 1 per cent until the discharge ceases.

Swelling Along Milk Vein.

Just before calving my cow developed what at the time seemed to me to be a rupture of the navel, but a veterinarian said it was not a rupture. Since calving the swelling spread lengthwise of the body and now extends from her forelegs to her udder along the milk vein. at the navel it forms a sac which seems to be filled with a liquid, and the whole vein is much enlarged.

The heifer has been infected through a wound, probably a scratch. Have a graduate veterinarian lance the sac immediately to provide drainage and then syringe the cut with an antiseptic. This treatment should stop all spread of the infection. While he is doing this it would be well to test for tuberculosis by the intradermal method.

Swelling on Cow's Leg.

My cow has a swelling on the inside hock joint. It looks and feels like a bog spavin on a horse's leg. The cow is not very lame, but she don't stand all her weight on that leg very long.

Apply Lugol's solution of iodine to the swollen joint and rub in thoroughly with a tooth brush once a day. If skin becomes blistered wait till inflammation subsides before continuing to apply.

Cow With Sores on Under Side.

I have a cow that has small sores upon either side of tail and under her flank, behind her front shoulder, and upon her belly, which she licks and keeps raw. I can heal them up for a short time with axle grease but not permanently.

Put a halter on the cow and surcingle. Attach halter-ring to surcingle by a stick passed between the front legs. This will prevent licking of sores which will not heal while being licked. Paint sores once or twice daily with equal parts tincture iodine and compound tincture benzoin.

Pus Bag on Shoulder.

A lump the side of a man's fist appeared six weeks ago on the, point of my cow's shoulder. I blistered it three times. It became soft and I lanced it. A lot of matter ran out; but it has swollen hard to its former size.

Lance again at its lowest point and make a large incision. Syringe out cavity once or twice daily with a solution of potassium permanganate one teaspoonful to the gallon of water.

A Mouth Trouble.

I have a Jersey cow that dribbles and froths at the mouth and grinds her teeth a good deal. Her coat is in good condition, but she does not attempt to eat any grass, though she is always ready for her hay and eats it well.

Call in a graduate veterinarian and have him examine her mouth. There is probably a foreign body present or a bad tooth. Ulceration of the mouth will also cause this.

Impaction of Paunch.

I there such a thing as a cow losing her cud, and if so, what can be done in such a case? I had a young heifer fall sick and she died, and after death we opened her and her paunch was full of hay not chewed. The lining of the stomach seemed to be eaten off. We never saw her chew her cud after she sickened.

Cows do not "lose their ends." Chewing the cud is an act of remastication before food is delivered to the fourth stomach for true digestion. Your cow had impaction of the paunch. In such cases give 2 pounds Epsom salts well diluted and 2 ounces Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia every three hours until improvement is shown by the appearance of appetite and ruminature, or "chewing the cud."

Cow Needed Surgical Aid.

I had a young cow which became bound up and there was no passage of the bowels for several days. Gave her two pounds Glauber's salts one day, one pound the next day, and one the third day. The cow died. What was wrong with the treatment?

Your treatment for constipation did no harm, and will often do good. In future use Epsom salts instead of Glauber's. Your animal had an impacted rumen and surgical interference would have been the only means of saving her.

Swelling on Heifer's Head and Shoulders.

I have a cow that will not eat. Her head, neck and shoulders are swollen. She is a heifer with first calf.

This appears to be the result of a poisonous bite. Paint swellings with tincture of iodine. Give internally the following: Fluid extract nux vomica, eight drachms; alcohol enough to make one pint. Give two ounces three times a day until gone.

Cows Have Vaginitis.

What about cows running with the bull all the time and being in heat all the time? They have calved from time to time, but it seems to me that something must be wrong, either with the bull, or the cows have some disease. I have examined two of them, and found the womb swollen to the size of a medium sized rose and very red as if irritated, and discharging a slimy stuff.

Your cows have vaginitis. Take them away from the bull and irrigate their vaginas once daily with 1 per cent creolin solution for two weeks. In the meanwhile, wash out the bull's sheath with this solution daily for the same period. Do not turn the animals back with the bull until the discharge has ceased.

Infection After De-horning.

One of my dehorned cows is sick with foamy and bloody matter running from the holes of the horns. I would like to know what is best to do for her.

Your cow's stubs have become infected. Thoroughly syringe out the holes twice a day with the following: Liquor Cresolis Compositus 2 1/2 drachms, water 1 pint. Cover all stubs after dehorning with Stockholm tar, which is protective and antiseptic.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis.

About a month ago my five-months heifer had a bad cough that came on in spells during which she had a hard time to get her breath; her mouth would fill up with phlegm or saliva. The cough is hollow and deep and as I have fed her some hay containing foxtail grass, wondered if she could have got one into her lungs. Her general health seems fair, appetite fair, etc.; only recently she seems to be getting dull and a little poor.

This cow should be tested for tuberculosis.

A Case of Anthrax.

A neighbor of mine lost a cow suddenly a few days ago. He cut the carcass open to see what was the matter, and found the spleen terribly swollen twice its natural size, the lungs swelled almost to bursting, the intestines covered with some loose matter that he could scrape off with his knife, as if the surface of the intestines were rotting or getting dissolved in some peculiar way. Every organ was affected in some way, too large or inflamed or peculiarly colored. Can it be anthrax? There is no swamp on his farm.

The cow died of anthrax. Although your description of postmortem appearances is not absolutely characteristic, still it is typical enough to warrant this diagnosis. Have him vaccinate the rest of his herd immediately. However, do not vaccinate any of his sick animals, or those showing symptoms, such as high fever, as vaccination will not save them. Separate all sick from healthy animals, and disinfect barns. It is not necessary to have swampy ground to have land infected with anthrax.

Occurrence of Anthrax.

You say that prevention of anthrax "consists of vaccination before the period or time at which it usually breaks out." Does this imply that after this disease has once appeared in a place, it remains, so that we may expect a new outbreak every year?

Once soil becomes infected with anthrax it stays for an indefinite period of years. However, cattle may graze on infected premises during winter and spring without becoming infected, as the disease does not usually break out till summer or fall. Thus by vaccinating them in late spring, they become immune before the time the disease usually breaks
out. Different localities usually show different periods for the outbreak of anthrax which may also be governed by that particular season, which may be late or early. Vaccination gives an immunity for about one year, so that on infected soil animals should be vaccinated early.

Bloody Murrain Is Anthrax.

State what bloody murrain is, how it acts, what the cause is, and the cure.

Bloody Murrain is an old name, not used at present, for anthrax. It acts as an acute septicaemic and is caused by the germs bacillus anthracis. There is no cure. Prevention is the only means of combating this disease, which consists of vaccination before the period or time at which it usually breaks out.

Sudden Death of Heifer.

A heifer of mine had a stiff walk and hung her head down. She had no appetite whatever. I gave her a good physic but it did not affect her and she only lived about twelve hours after I discovered she was sick. Now I have another taken in the same way.

Give your heifer the following: Quinine sulphate 4 drachms; fluid extract belladonna one-half ounce; fluid extract digitalis one-half ounce; spirits nitrous ether, four ounces; alcohol four ounces; syrup enough to make one pint. Give two ounces every three to four hours until gone.

Growths on Neck.

My cow has on top of neck, one-third of the way from head to shoulders, a bunch of grayish growths from size of pea to inch in diameter. They seem painful under pressure.

These are papillomata, due to some local irritant. Snip them off with a sharp pair of curved scissors after washing with lysol water. Apply tincture chloride of iron once daily to the spots.

Turpentine for Bloat.

I am given this treatment for bloat: "Take two tablespoonfuls of turpentine; put into bottle of warm water; drench the bloated cow with it and in a few minutes she will be all right."

You will find the turpentine very efficacious for bloat, only increase the amount three times.

Fox-Tail Swelling.

I have a cow that had a fox-tail in her throat which caused a swelling back of the jaw. It was lanced, but perhaps not lanced deep enough. The core is very hard, and there is another core about half way up on her neck.

Take a sharp-pointed knife and lance the hard cores you speak of. After pus has escaped, syringe out cavities daily with a 2 per cent solution liquid cresolis compositus.

Effects of Abnormal Birth.

With one of my cows the calf came, two weeks ago, hind feet first and dead. The afterbirth came three hours after calf was taken, but she has quite a lot of bloody discharge yet. Could you tell why her calf came as it did, and is she apt to have all of her calves the same way? I think the first calf came the same way. Is this discharge for two weeks natural?

The discharge is not natural. Irrigate her vagina and uterus with two gallons of a one per cent potassium permanganate warmed to body temperature once a day for one to two weeks, or until discharge ceases. Also give internally two drachms of potassium iodide twice a day. Dilute this in water and give for one week. A normal presentation is either fore feet and head or hind feet. Some animals for unknown reasons never present normally again; it is the exception with others.

Lazy Bull.

A bull will follow cows in heat, but will not attempt to cover them.

Yohimbin in five-sixth grain doses three times a day would undoubtedly overcome this trouble; but it is sometimes hard to get and expensive. Try fluid extract of nux vomica in drachm doses three times a day until he shows great nervousness and keep him away from the cows for a couple of weeks.

Bull's Tongue Swollen.

My bull developed a swollen tongue. The root is all right, but from the base out the bull seemed to have no control of it. It is hard, but no sign of abscess has shown. It is hard for him to chew his cud and to drink.

This is Actinomycosis of the tongue, sometimes called "wooden-tongue." Put the animal on potassium iodide given in two-drachm doses three times a day on an empty stomach. Dissolve this in water. This is the only drug which has a specific action on this trouble.

Bull With Tuberculosis.

I have a bull that is out of condition, and while I have had two veterinarians examine him they did not do him much good, and he still coughs. For the past couple of days he has thrown blood out of his nose. He has been sick over two months, but seems to eat fairly good. Is there anything that can be done for the animal?

It looks like a well-advanced case of tuberculosis and the animal cannot live long. It seems extraordinary, however, that two veterinarians have treated him if he was suffering from tuberculosis. Of course an examination would be necessary to determine the facts. An animal in the condition which you describe would probably not react to the subcutaneous tuberculin test.

Preventing Self-Abuse.

Advise me what to do for a bull that masturbates.

This is a bad habit to break an animal of. Mechanical means are the only methods which offer any hope of results. Prevention of erection or pain on erection are the two methods open to use. A sack-like wire screen held in place over the penis by girths and straps answers the purpose of the former method, while the latter method may be accomplished by making a leather pad through which nails are driven and holding this just in front of the penis with the sharp points projecting downward.

Cow Pox.

One of my cows has small sores on her teats and bag, which look as though the skin had been knocked off. It dries and forms a light scab. Before it becomes a sore, there appears a red spot under the skin.

Your cow has cow-pox. Give a physic of glauber and epsom salts mixed 4 ounces of each to a heifer and double the dose to a cow. Apply externally, once daily, after washing, the following prescription: Zinc ointment 4 ounces, iodoform 1/2 ounce, glycerine 2 ounces, carbolic acid 2 drachms. Mix thoroughly and apply to sores. Applications of carbolated vaseline are also approved.

The "Horn Fly."

Tell when the horn fly was first brought to California and how to keep the flies from cattle.

The horn fly was imported to America from Europe about 1887. Spraying the cattle with antifly remedies is good; or brushing the surface of the hair with a mixture as follows: Cut some pine tar with an equal amount of kerosene and then add as much fish oil as of the kerosene. They breed in fresh manure. Spread the manure out so it will dry quickly or keep it under close cover.

Wash Against Flies.

Tell me how to make a good application to keep the flies off and leave the hair on horses and cows.

One recipe is: Fish oil 1 pint, liquor cresolis compositus, 4 ounces, neutral oil enough to make one gallon. The U. S. Department of Agriculture recommends the following: A mixture of fish oil 1 gallon, oil of pine tar 2 ounces, oil of pennyroyal 2 ounces, and kerosene 1/2 pint; applied lightly but thoroughly to the portions of animals not covered with blankets or nets. Repeat often as the flies bother.

Fly Knocker.

What is a good fly knocker for a cow?

A can of carbolineum will last a long time and is a good fly-knocker. Moisten a cloth with a little and wipe it over the cow. The flies will give her lots of room.


I have a young heifer whose back is full of swellings containing grubs of the botfly. There is not a single one on the cows.

Your heifer is troubled by the grubs of the Hypoderma Lincata, or ox warble fly. This fly lays its eggs on the heels, shoulders and belly of cattle, where they hatch in twelve days. The larvae irritate the skin, causing itching, which spots the animal licks, picking up the larvae on the tongue and swallowing same. The larvae then burrow through the walls of the oesophagus and up into the muscles of the back under the skin, where they hibernate, develop and pass out in June, July and August. The grub falls to the ground and in thirty and forty days becomes a mature fly. Crude pine tar, smeared over the heels, belly and shoulders every twelve days, will kill the larvae and expel the flies. Grubs already lodged in the back should be squeezed out or killed by the injection of a few drops of turpentine into the abscess. Young animals are more susceptible than the older ones for the reason that their skin is more sensitive to the itching caused by the larvae and is, therefore, more often licked.

Cleaning Up Cattle Ticks.

My son in Guatemala has a good deal of trouble with ticks on. the cattle and wishes some formula for dipping and washing cattle to make them free of the pest, and also which would be the best way to destroy them in the pasturages.

The variety of tick infesting the cattle would determine the exact method of eradication, as its life history is the all-important factor in prescribing special treatment. The following is an outline for Texas Fever tick eradication and the same dips will kill all kinds of ticks: Arsenious acid 10 pounds, carbonate of soda 24 pounds, soap 24 pounds, oil of pine tar 1 1/2 gallons, and water enough to make 500 gallons. Boil the arsenious acid and carbonate of soda in 50 gallons of water for two hours and add the remaining ingredients. An ordinary dipping vat should contain 2,000 to 5,000 gallons. Have your cattle well watered and rested before dipping. Drain the cattle where there is no vegetation and rest an hour after dipping. By dipping all the cattle every twenty to thirty days, all ticks on the property will become exterminated in one year. Or divide the property with fences and keep all animals off a subdivision for eight months, which will clean that piece of land by starving the ticks. Dip all cattle before returning to rested land twice in ten days. In this way all land on a property can be cleaned up.

Ear Ticks in Cattle.

Most of the cattle in this vicinity are infested with ear ticks. It breeds and develops only inside of the animals' ears, and it seems they are on the increase. While no loss of cattle has occurred so far, this tick causes annoyance to cattle. We use diluted sheep dip to try to get rid of them.

The only disease-bearing tick fatal to cattle is the one which is the carrier of the organism which causes Texas fever. At present California is supposed to be free from this trouble. The Texas fever tick attacks all parts of the body. Send samples of your ticks to the State Veterinarian, Sacramento, for identification. You will find the following a better preparation to remove ticks than you are using: Kerosene 1 gallon, cotton seed oil one gallon, sulphur one pound. Smear this over ticks as often as it becomes necessary.

Cattle Have Herpes.

I have young cattle on which there comes a scab or wart growth about the eyes, head and throat. They scratch or rub the affected spots a great deal. Some spots are almost as large as a man's hand and the surface is quite rough and hard.

Your cattle have herpes. Isolate all affected animals, as it is catching, and disinfect all rubbing posts and houses where they have been. Use a warm 1 per cent creolin solution to wash off and loosen scabs and crusts, and paint the affected areas of the skin with tincture of iodine once daily, being sure to thoroughly cover the outside edges of the affected areas. Try and prevent animals from scratching and rubbing as much as possible. In about one week after treatment is begun, discontinue the tincture of iodine, and apply iodine salve as needed.

Ring Worm.

I have a cow which has been licking her nose more than usual. I find that she has little brown rings all over her nose resembling ring worms. The cow is in fine condition. I also have a sorrel horse which has sores all over his body, especially on the head. They are under the skin, and rise up in lumps and come off in scabs, bringing hair and skin with them. They average about an inch or more in diameter.

Both your cow and horse have ring worm. Wash affected parts well with warm soap and water, then apply tincture iodine daily for one week, after which apply vaseline to the part once or twice to keep the skin soft.

Oleander Poisoning.

Three cows took sick Thursday, one died Sunday and one on Monday. They did not seem to suffer pain, but stood and lay around part of the time, not noticing anything. Nothing passed through them. They did not bloat. The veterinary opened both of them and found everything normal. The day before they took sick we fed them some lawn clippings, and there were a few oleander sprouts with the grass. If the oleander was poison, could not a veterinary detect it?

The cows died of oleander poisoning. The lesions found on autopsy are not characteristic and are often almost entirely absent. The symptoms you describe, however, are characteristic. One oleander top will usually produce death in cattle and horses. There is no specific antidote and cases must be treated symptomatically.

For Pigs With a Cold.

My pigs cough a little and run at the nose. They seem in good health, are on natural pasture and forage practically all day, and eat heartily of the grain feed twice a day.

For the colds which your pigs have, give the following: Quinine sulphate 1 1/2 drachms, pulverized flux vomica 1 drachm, pulverized ammonium carbonate 2 drachms, pulverized camphor 1 drachm, pulverized potassium nitrate, 3 drachms, pulverized gentian root 3 drachms. Make this into twelve powders and give one powder twice a day in molasses.

Coal Screenings for Hogs.

Are coal screenings good for hogs? Can you suggest anything better?

Coal screenings are good for hogs. A better form of carbon for pigs, however, is charcoal.

Pig Breathes Hard.

I have a pig two months old that breathes very hard. His nose is some swollen and a faint odor comes from it. The pig is still sucking and eating skim milk and rolled barley; is in good form except a rough coat.

Your pig has a foreign body lodged in his nostrils. Remove it, carefully using a piece of baling wire with a ball of cotton twisted on the end. - Turn and twist until substance catches on the cotton. After treatment would consist of syringing out nostril with 50 per cent solution peroxide of hydrogen.

Intestinal Catarrh.

A pig about four months old has but little control of his hindquarters. He eats well, but does not digest well, for he has diarrhoea. He has been in this condition for some time.

The hog has gastro-intestinal catarrh. Feed but once daily and give only light food such as bran mash. Give two-ounce doses of epsom salts twice a week and use the following: Bismuth subnitrate 4 ounces, zinc sulphocarbolate 4 ounces, soda bicarbonate 8 ounces, iron sulphate 6 ounces. Mix together and give two ounces twice daily.

For Protruding Rectum.

The inside of the rectum of my three-months-old pig protrudes like a telescope till it projects two or three inches from rump of the pig. The pig has been this way for a week. I used carbolic acid as a disinfectant. I have difficulty in keeping her bowels loose and she has pains in excreting. What is the cause of this and how shall I treat the pig?

Give pig two to six ounces epsom salts, depending on size, as needed to remedy this trouble. On the prolapsed rectum use the following ointment: Adrenaline and chloretone ointment (P. D. Co.) applied twice daily. Before applying the ointment, hang pig up by hind legs and give injection of warm soap and water to reduce the prolapse, then insert finger and apply the ointment.

Pig With Inflammation of Kidneys.

What is the matter with a pig that urinates almost constantly, usually small stream; at first natural in appearance; now, after five days, considerable quantities of blood, bright red? The pig lies down on his belly most of the time. When standing, back is humped.

This is inflammation of the kidneys. The best remedy is to butcher the animal. You might try giving flaxseed tea twice daily in one pint doses, also one drachm potassium citrate twice daily.

"Thumps" in Pigs.

I have young pigs that cannot stand still. They shake like a pig does when he is cold.

Your pigs have the thumps. Cut their ration in half. Give each 2 ounces epsom salts, then 2 drachms aromatic spirits ammonia every two hours until relieved.

Scabby Hide of White Pigs.

Tell me a good way to keep scabs off my white pigs. Does undiluted coal oil sprinkled on them to kill lice hurt the pigs?

Undiluted coal oil is too severe to use on animals; a little crude oil painted on their backs and behind the ears is far better. White pigs blister and become scabby in our California climate, and is one of the main reasons why black hogs are more popular in this State. Provide plenty of shade for them and a clean cement wallow, containing a 2 per cent solution of liquor cresolis compositus, on which is floated about one-half inch of crude oil. Allow them free access to this at all times. Clean out this wallow at least once every two weeks and put in fresh solution. This will not only act as a healing lotion for their scabs and sores, but will also keep them free from lice and help prevent other diseases.

Pigs Die From Infection.

When our pigs are born, they are in a good, healthy condition; at the age of five days or over they scour very bad, and get very thin; they suck the mothers very little; they always lay sideways for about five or six days until they die. The sows' food consists of skim milk, dairy chop food, and rice middlings.

Your pigs became infected with the organism Bacillus Coli communis. Wash the sows' udders with a 2 per cent solution liquor cresolis compositus once a day. Disinfect your premises. Give pigs one tablet Abbott's sulphocarbolates compound once daily. It would also be a good plan to cut down the sows' rations considerably.

Pigs Lame From Foot Rot.

Some of my pigs get lame in their hind feet. They seem to walk on the back part of their feet with the toes sticking up off of the ground. Then a few days later the ankles get scabby. The hoofs turn a reddish purple, like a mashed thumb nail, before they get lame. I notice some with their noses peeling off, but they still have good appetites.

Your pigs have foot rot caused by the organism bacillus necrophorus, which lives in mud and water. Put animals in dry surroundings. Make a trough deep enough so that when standing in it, the affected parts of the feet will be covered. Make animal stand in this containing a 2 1/2 per cent cresol solution for five or ten minutes. Take a swab and wipe off their noses with this solution. Afterwards apply pine tar to the affected parts.

Mangy Pigs.

Tell me a good remedy for a kind of mange in pigs? Their skins seem to get thick and wrinkled and itchy, the hair standing straight and mostly falls out.

This is mange. Make a dipping tank and dip these pigs twice a week in a 2 per cent solution liquor cresolis compositus covered with 1/2 inch crude oil twice a week.

Pigs Smut-Poisoned.

Several young pigs lose the use of their hindquarter, are weak across the back, try to get up and roil around. When they finally succeed in getting up, go staggering off, and if excited roll over some more. Am feeding ground barley that has smut in it. Can that affect them?

This condition is due to poisoning from the smut on the barley. Young pigs are very susceptible to forage poisoning of many kinds.

Foxtail in Pigs' Eyes.

The eyes of pigs, ten weeks old, are swollen and have sores around them. Four weeks ago one of the pigs got a foxtail in one eye, and I pulled it out. I cannot see any more foxtails.

Some of the foxtail remains. Remove the cause and bathe several times daily with boric acid solution.

Skin Disease of Pigs.

My little pigs get nice and fat, then in about two weeks they become scabby, sores forming, and finally die. I have kept litters from mudholes.

The pigs have infectious dermatitis. Dip them every other day in a two per cent solution of liquor cresolis compositus. Disinfect their quarters with the same strength solution.

For Worms in Pigs.

What is good for worms in pigs? They have charcoal and salt always before them.

It is wise to suspect worms in pigs at all times. Place some powdered iron sulphate where they can have free access to it.

Stale Milk Injures Hogs.

Two of our sows died suddenly and the rest in the lot got a black diarrhoea. They are on pasture, received a little ground feed and separator skim milk hauled in a wooden tank, night's and morning's milk mixed. The milk tank in which it was hauled to the hogs was formerly not cleaned at all, but lately we scrape it out once in a while and wash it out with clear cold water.

There is no doubt that the stale milk adhering to the sides of the tank putrefied and contaminated the fresh milk put in. This caused ptomaine poisoning. Keep the tank absolutely clean and you will avoid future trouble from this source.

Sow Does Not Breed.

I have a sow sixteen months old and has never been with pig.

She seems to come in heat regularly and has been bred five times by three different boars. We did not breed her until she was twelve months old. She is in real good condition..

This sow either has a growth in her genital tract or is troubled with leucorrhea. An examination would be necessary to determine the exact trouble. Try douching her vagina once daily with a 1-1000 solution potassium permanganate.

Helping a Sow to Breed.

My sow is four years old, and raised several nice litters. The last time she took the boar it did not bring her with pigs, and since that date she has never been in heat. She is fat, and seems to feel good.

Give the sow the following: Fluid extract viburnum prunifolium in two-drachm doses twice a day.

Home-Made Hog Tonic.

Parties are traveling through the country selling a very marvelous tonic for hogs at a marvelous price. Could not farmers procure the ingredients and make the compound themselves at about one-sixth the cost?

The recipe for the tonic is given by the United States Department of Agriculture as follows: Wood charcoal 1 pound, sulphur 1 pound, common salt 2 pounds, sodium bicarbonate 2 pounds,, sodium hyposulphite 2 pounds, sodium sulphate 1 pound, antimony sulphide 1 pound. These ingredients should be completely pulverized and thoroughly mixed. The dose is a large tablespoonful for each 200 pounds weight of hogs to be treated.

Water Puffs on Pigs.

Three or four of a litter of eleven pigs two weeks old have puffs or bags under the skin of their backs filled with a water-like substance. They are well otherwise and have good appetites.

These cysts appear at times on new-born animals probably due to malformation. Open them at the lowest point so as to give drainage and paint their inner lining with tincture of iodine once a day until healed.

Eating Hogs After Vaccination.

When, after vaccination for hog cholera, can I kill with perfect safety for bacon, lard, etc.? The hogs have always been perfectly healthy.

Hogs are all right to kill and use for meat twenty-one days after vaccination. At that time they have cleared up and will pass the government inspection at abattoirs.

Rheumatic Pigs.

I have sixteen pigs, seven weeks old, in good health, get all the skim milk and middlings they can eat, have dry houses to sleep in and floored outside runs to keep them out of the mud. But one of the pigs is lame in the left front and hind feet, and the others are beginning to be so.

Your pigs have rheumatism, to which swine are very liable. Be sure to see there are no cracks in the floor or house through which drafts may enter. Use good dry straw for bedding. Give each pig a teaspoonful of epsom salts daily for three days, then 5 grains sodium salicylate twice daily until lameness disappears. If pigs go off their feed, discontinue treatment for a few days and then resume.

Pigs With Inflammatory Rheumatism.

We have some shoats five months of age that get weak in the hind legs; the second joint is more or less swollen; they eat and drink always, but can't stand on the hind legs. They also vomit the food more or less. When. standing they continually tramp on their feet.

Your pigs have inflammatory rheumatism. Provide good, dry sleeping quarters for them, free from draughts. Paint the swollen joints with tincture of iodine once daily. Give them internally one five-grain tablet sodium salicylate twice a day in their feed.

Pigs Dwindle Away With Pneumonia.

I always lose some young weaned pigs. They have a cough and dwindle away but eat almost to the last. I feed warm skim milk from the separator and green forage.

Your pigs are troubled with chronic pneumonia caused in most cases by insanitary surroundings and overcrowding during these cold nights. Provide warm, dry sleeping quarters free from drafts.

Pigs Scouring.

Four pigs about a month old have dysentery. The mother lost her milk when they were a week old. We feed warm sweet milk night and morning.

Give these pigs one 30-grain tablet Abbott's Sulphocarbolates each, three times a day, until diarrhoea is under control.

Pig With Fistula of Shoulder.

A young hog six months old, has been bruised by a bite of another hog on the shoulder blade at the top. At first it swelled up and looked as though it wanted to run. I lanced it and quite a bit of pus came. out. It was all right for a while, but swelled again. I lanced it again about one-half inch deep and cut it two inches wide, but found no pus. What I cut through looked like fat. The lump is about the size of a small china cup.

The pig has a fistula of the shoulder. The fatty tissue is not normal and must be removed. An operation is the only satisfactory means to effect a cure. Consult your nearest veterinarian.

Pigs With Lung Plague.

About a month ago some of our pigs began to get thin and cough. Their eyes got sore and would close. Breathing seemed to be very difficult, and they became very weak in their hind quarters; some would wobble so badly that they fell down. They would act this way for a few weeks, then die. They ate very well up till a day or so before they would die. In post mortem examination everything seemed all right except their lungs, which would be very much discolored in spots, or the whole lung would be almost black or rather blue, and inside there would be a sore spot of a white froth-like matter.

Your pigs are affected with lung plague, which is an infectious, contagious disease. There is no cure, and prevention is the only means of combating the trouble. This consists of hygienic and sanitary surroundings. Separate the healthy animals from the sick ones. Provide good, dry sleeping quarters free from draughts. Place the following substances in containers where animals can have access to them: Powdered iron sulphate, salt, potassium nitrate, powdered charcoal, and slaked lime. Disinfect your premises with a five per cent solution liq. cresolis compositus. Dip your pigs once a month in a two per cent solution of the same, covered with one-half inch crude oil.

Sow Partly Paralyzed.

We have a sow that we expect to farrow in a week or two. She has had the same care as the rest of the saws, about sixty in all. She has lost the power of her hind legs. Have given her a good rubbing over the kidneys and legs with liniment; does not seem to do her any good.

Your sow's paralysis is due to her condition. She will probably recover after farrowing. The condition is ascribed to pressure on the nerves and blood-vessels of the pelvis. This pressure is removed after parturition. Give her plenty of clean, dry bedding and keep her comfortable. It is a good treatment to give her two ounces Epsom salts every two to four days as long as the paralysis continues.

Sow Paralyzed.

My brood sow about a year old has lost all her strength in the back quarter; she is not able to walk at all. She was bred about three weeks ago; she is in a good condition.

This is paralysis due to her pregnant condition. Give her twenty grains potassium iodide three time a day before meals.

Ulcers on Sow.

What can I do for a young sow which seems to have ulceration on and in the vagina?

Get a human rectal syringe and inject the following, twice daily, being sure to keep parts clean: Liquor cresolis compositus two and a half teaspoonfuls, water one pint. Sprinkle the surface ulcers afterward with the following: Boric acid one ounce, zinc oxide one ounce, alum one dram, thymol iodide one dram. Put this powder on with a salt shaker.

Hogs With Lice.

I have some saws with young pigs that are covered with lice. I have them in small individual pens, under cover. The pens have board floors, which are cleaned, and bedding changed three times per week.

Thoroughly spray your pens and houses with sheep dip. Get some crude oil and heavily paint the backs of mature animals, being sure to coat the region behind the ears. Do this once a week and your pigs will soon be free from lice,, Another good method is to construct a wallow or bath, keeping the water covered to a depth of one-half an inch with crude oil, and allow your animals free access to this.

Wound on Hog's Leg.

I have a hog that gave out in one front leg two weeks ago. Some days she moves around and feeds; others she lies around. When she walks, she holds up one leg. I noticed on inside of leg about the knee two natural looking holes that seem to keep moist.

Wash leg off thoroughly with warm soap and water and examine to see if there is a foreign body, such as a nail or splinter, lodged in it. Paint affected part daily with tincture of iodine. Give internally one dose of four ounces Epsom salts.

Stomach Tumor in Sow.

After a sow died we found a growth nearly the size of a person's head in her stomach. This seemed to be rather hard and like gristle with a red streak through it. It seemed to have grown from the large intestine.

The hard growth you mention was a tumor. These growths appear without apparent cause and do no damage until they interfere mechanically with the vital functions.

Hog's Feet Crack.

I find several of my hogs, running on alfalfa, have sore feet which crack up and bleed and get so lame they cannot walk. The hoofs become a pinkish, red color.

The trouble is caused by the bacillus necrophoras. This germ lives in water and mud, contamination of which produces the trouble you have. Give animals internally ten grains potassium nitrate for each 100 pounds live weight, two or three times daily in feed. Make animals stand in three per cent solution creolin for five to ten minutes twice a day. Disinfect mud holes and wallows with a five per cent solution creolin.

Boar Weak in Legs.

A boar 14 months old, has been weak in the legs for the past three weeks. We feed skim milk, steamed barley, middlings, charcoal.

The boar's trouble is digestive. Give him four ounces Epsom salts. Have the following put up in twelve powders and give one powder three times daily: Dried iron sulphate, one drachm; quinine sulphate, one-half drachm; nux vomica, one and one-half drachms; gentian root, three drachms; potassium nitrate, one and one-half drachms.

Erysipelas in Hogs.

We have lost hogs from what some veterinaries call "cholera," some call it "erysipelas," some "pneumonia." What does your veterinary say about the symptoms of "erysipelas" in hogs?

Erysipelas in hogs takes three forms. (1) Urticaria, the mildest form. After 1-2 days there is a general disturbance of health. There are sharp circumscribed swellings on various parts of the body dark red or violet in color. The center may become pale, but the borders retain their bright color. The temperature may rise up to 109 F. There is dullness, loss of appetite, thirst, constipation, inflamed eyes, and at times paralysis and nausea. The eruptions usually disappear after two to three days and the animal recovers. (2) Erysipelas Septicemia, the most frequent form. Sudden cessation of normal condition. Lie exhausted and do not resent handling. There is loss of appetite and vomiting. Temperature rises up to 108 F. and remains constant. Eyelids swollen and discharging. At first constipation then diarrhoea mixed with blood. Reddening of the skin rarely appears earlier than the second day. Exceptionally death results at the end of the first day or only after eight to nine days. (3) Chronic Erysipelas. Appears like the acute form. At first there is an apparent improvement, but later the symptoms manifest themselves again and death usually results.

Enlarged Thyroid in Sow.

A young sow had what seems to be a lump about the size of a peach pit in her throat a few weeks ago. Since then she gets the food to her throat and then coughs it up. It is more like a growth now, is quite long and has grown fast to the flesh. Could it be cut out?

This is an enlarged thyroid. Paint it with iodine once daily for a week.

Sheep With Nasal Catarrh.

What is the cause of nasal catarrh in sheep; also the cure?

Coryza (acute nasal catarrh) is due to any local or general irritant. If the animal is not sick, inhalations of Vapo Cresoline or local applications of saturate boracic acid, several times daily. It may be caused sometimes by pasturing on alkali pastures if it is general.

Bronchial Worms in Sheep.

We have sheep running in a small pasture. We kept water for them in a trough, but they seemed to prefer to drink from the canal or low place in lot. Two have died and one is sick. It was running at the nostrils badly and finally began to bleed.

From the symptoms given, your sheep probably have verminous bronchitis. However, the diagnosis had better be backed up by a graduate veterinarian. If worms or ova are found in the nasal discharge the diagnosis will be positive. Remove all sheep to fresh pasture and allow them water from a clean trough only. The trough should be emptied and disinfected daily with a five per cent creolin solution. All animals should receive an injection with a hypodermic syringe in the trachea, with the following: Oil of turpentine and olive oil each 100 parts, Pearson's creolin 10 parts. Inject one drachm into the trachea of each animal and repeat in three days.

Lameness in Sheep.

Some time ago one ewe got lame in one front leg and later on she got quite stiff in all four legs. Then a yearling wether got the same way. Then another ewe went lame in one front leg and today she can hardly use her front legs. Two sheep have died.

The trouble is due to an organism called the Bacillus Necrophorus, and is usually caused by infected mud or water. Keep your sheep on a hard, dry floor until the ground dries up. Let them stand for thirty minutes in warm two per cent solution of creolin daily for a few days, washing and scrubbing feet and legs thoroughly.

Mite in Dog's Ears.

I send a bug we find in our pet dogs' ears. It bothers them very much until we get them out. They are in in the winter as well as summer.

Your dogs are troubled with a mite. First clean out and syringe with a two per cent carbolic acid solution and dry thoroughly, then inject the following: Napthol, 20 drops; sulphuric ether, 1 drachm; olive oil 1/2 ounce, and close the opening for fifteen minutes with cotton.

Dog With St. Vitus Dance.

My shepherd dog had distemper this spring. He seems to be all right except his front legs and neck. His head keeps jerking, and when he lies down it is just the same.

Your dog has (chorea) St. Vitus dance. He will outgrow this in a few years. This is secondary to distemper.

To Cure Mange on a Dog.

My pet dog has some kind of skin disease. His skin is very red, like fire; and he is itching and scratching all the time; has holes on his back and tail.

The following treatment carefully carried out will cure your dog. Internally give one ounce castor oil and one ounce syrup of Buckthorn mixed together. After this purgative has acted, get one-half ounce Fowlers Solution and give five drops of this twice daily until gone. The above doses are for dogs weighing about forty pounds; doses in proportion for other weights. Externally give dog a good bath in hot soap and water, using a brush and being sure to scrub off all scabs and scales. Then immerse animal in a lime sulphur dip for five minutes. This is composed of lime eight parts, sulphur 24 parts and water 1100 parts. Your druggist can make this for you. Repeat the bath and immersion in the sulphur dip three times at intervals of ten days. After the bath, thoroughly dry the animal and apply and work in thoroughly all over the skin the following, which your druggist can make up for you: Oil tar, one ounce; flowers of sulphur, one ounce; oil cajuput, one ounce and neutral oil, enough to make one quart. Keep the dog on a light diet.

Mange or Ringworm on Dog.

Mange is just starting on a fox terrier, being a spot about as big as a dollar. Shall I keep him away from the children?

Apply the following lotion to affected parts, once daily for three days; and on fourth wash with soap and warm water. Lotion: 3 ounces sublimed sulfur, 4 drams of oil of tar, 2 1/2 ounces of liquid petroleum. Do not apply to more than one-quarter of the body at a time in any case, but as this is just starting and only in small patches, this warning is scarcely necessary. Keep the dog away from the children as you cannot be certain that the affection is mange. Other parasitic diseases, such as ring worm, are easily communicable to the human.

Chronic Constipation in Dog.

I have a valuable dog with what appears to be chronic constipation. The obstruction seems to be located at the rectum.. So far we have been able to relieve him. We use an enema of warm water and soap. He also manages to take it from himself.

Give this dog two ounces of castor oil. Follow this with one tablespoonful of hydrocarbon oil daily. This is a great reliever of chronic conditions of this kind.

Swelling on Dog's Jaw.

Our bull pup has a growth under his lower right jaw. Three days ago was no larger than a small pullet's egg, and is enlarging rapidly. It is movable and does not seem to pain when touched.

This may be an abscess or may be an enlargement of one of the submaxillary glands. Bathe and rub in a mild liniment such as the following: tincture arnica 1 ounce, spirits camphor 1 ounce, soft soap 1/2 ounce, stronger ammonia water drachm, water to 8 ounces. When the abscess points it would require to be lanced and syringed out twice daily with a mild antiseptic, such as a saturated solution of boric acid. Pay attention to the animal's diet and feed only twice daily.

Rabies in the Dog.

How long does it take rabies to develop in a dog bitten by a mad dog? Would it be communicated to pups, littered one hour after the mother was bitten? What are certain symptoms?

The period of incubation varies between fifteen days and two months, but cases are on record of longer and shorter periods. It could not be communicated to pups littered one hour after the mother had been bitten, provided of course they were not subjected to exposure to subsequent infection.

The symptoms are rather liable to be confounded with symptoms of other affections, except by a trained observer, but in general one may say the following are suspicious and where there is a history of a dog having been bitten by a strange dog should be believed with decided suspicion. The first signs of both kinds of rabies (the "drunk" and the "furious") are the same and consist of a change in habit, as a dog inclined to be surly becomes affectionate and a dog of apathetic habits will become more active, but inclined to resort to dark corners, etc. There is no inclination to ferocity in the first stages: however, there is generally an increased nervousness and restlessness at this time. A depraved appetite is almost an invariable symptom at this stage. The voice is changed and has a peculiar note, once heard never forgotten. The popular idea that a dog is afraid of water is fallacious, as there is generally an increased thirst and the animal will drink freely.

Belgian Does Refuse Buck.

Four large Belgian hare does have persistently refused the black Flemish giant buck, one of them fighting and biting him. One other doe, bought already bred, had her young and was bred to this buck all right. Have left the others with him one at a time, sometimes as long as a week.

Give your does yohimbine in doses of 1-48 grain three times a day for five days before they come in heat.

Persistent Sore on Doe.

My doe has an open sore at the base of one ear, on the outside, about the size of a dollar. It commenced months ago, with a lump that stuck out about the shape of a thimble. This after a while fell off, and seemed to be healed. Only lately it has opened up, and I can't heal it.

There is evidently a foreign substance in this sore which has never been removed. Examine carefully and remove any foreign material. Then paint the wound once daily with pure tincture of iodine until healed.

Rabbit Ear Scabs.

What causes rabbits to have scabs in their ears and what is the best prevention and also cure?

This is caused by the Dermatocoptic Scab Mite. Thorough disinfection of the yards and houses is the best preventive. Ordinary lime-sulphur wash used to dip sheep is a specific for this trouble.

Lump on Doe's Shoulder.

My doe kindled about three or four days ago. Now I notice a big, hard lump back of her right shoulder.

This is an abscess. Lance it at its most dependent point and syringe out the cavity once a day with hydrogen peroxide 50 per cent strength.

Rabbit Coccidiosis.

What is the cure for coccidiosis in rabbits?

There is no cure for coccidiosis. Prevention is the only means of combating this disease. The natural method of infection is by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of rabbits affected with the disease. Young animals are especially susceptible while old animals are affected less seriously and as a rule show no symptoms, but are capable of infecting young animals by means of their feces. Separate young and old animals at the earliest moment. Destroy all visibly diseased animals. Hutches must be disinfected, kept dry and well ventilated. Particular attention must be paid to keeping their water pure and uncontaminated.

Rabbits' Eyes Inflamed.

My rabbits' eyes seem to swell and they have fever about the head; but they eat up to the time they die, and die in awful pain. They do not seem to have a cold, eyes do not run or nose; their eyes are the only symptoms.

This is an infection of the eyes, which evidently causes inflammation of the brain. Thoroughly disinfect your pens weekly. Use boric acid in the eyes.

Fleas on Rabbits.

My rabbits have fleas on them. What is the treatment?

Dust the rabbits with any good insect powder you would use for chickens. A good deal depends on the thoroughness of the job; you must go over the whole body, nose, ears, and eyes, as fleas will lurk in all these places.

Sores on Rabbits' Feet.

Sores come on the bottom of my rabbits hind feet. At first there seems to be a small lump and in a short time the hair comes off of this lump; and then a thin skin peels off. This leaves the sore almost in the form of a blister, which gradually grows larger until nearly the whole bottom of the foot is affected.

This is Necio Bacillosis. Disinfect your pens with a five per cent liq. cresolis compositus solution, as the disease is infectious. Paint the sores on the rabbits' feet with tincture of iodine once a day.

[1] - The answers in Part VII are furnished in part by Dr. E. J. Creely of the San Francisco Veterinary College, and in larger part by Dr. H. B. Wintringham of Petaluma.

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