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It becomes easy to see that decisions made about the management of a wetland hold the key to disease prevention and thus that the wetland managers are the holders of this key sildigra 120mg low price. They 100 mg sildigra overnight delivery, together with the decision makers buy cheap sildigra 120 mg on-line, are the ones who can make a difference to health in wetlands generic sildigra 50mg without a prescription. But do these personnel have the understanding of how to do the right thing for disease prevention and control? And do they understand the importance of the complex interactions between humans, their livestock and wildlife when managing health in wetland ecosystems? The request for further guidance on animal diseases in wetlands came from the Tanzanian delegate speaking on behalf of the Africa Region. Coincidence or otherwise, it was a Tanzanian wildlife manager responsible for one of the planet’s high profile protected areas who said, following a taught module on wildlife health, that he “hadn’t thought about wildlife in that way before” and that he would “make practical changes and do things differently”. To try to better understand the nature of guidance needed for wetland health management, we conducted a needs survey of wetland professionals - there was a clear desire for practical guidance. Although designed for wetland managers, it was difficult to know just how to pitch this Manual given the enormous range of personnel responsible for managing wetlands across the world. We hope it is helpful and provides the wetland manager with some insight and a practical manual to help to “do things differently”. The Manual highlights the importance of including disease prevention and control in wetland management plans and provides guidelines on how to 1 do so. This Manual draws on a range of primary sources – interpreting and re-packaging the information for the wetland manager and the wetland policy maker. This Manual is not intended as in-depth technical guidance for dealing with specific disease issues, but as a primer describing the key components of disease prevention and control strategies and directing the reader to the primary sources, where more information can be obtained. The Manual is divided into five chapters accompanied by this Overview and a selection of Appendices ►Figure 0-1. Summary of the contents of each chapter of this Manual 1 Introduction A general introduction to animal diseases in wetlands – what they are and why they are a growing problem. A summary of the impacts of wetland disease on biodiversity, livestock and human health and its economic implications. Management in A look at the disease relationship between wildlife, livestock and Wetlands humans. A summary of current strategies for managing animal diseases in wetlands, including proactive strategies for preventing disease and reactive strategies for controlling disease. An introduction to the role of communication, education, participation and awareness in disease management. Management Guidance on how to incorporate disease management into Practices management plans for wetlands. Case studies: Descriptions and photos of wetland managers’ experiences responding to disease problems. Concern in Key questions to ask when a disease is detected: geographic Wetlands extent, wetland characteristics, host range, seasonality, transmission, field signs and potential impacts. Factsheets on a selection of diseases currently impacting wetlands providing a brief description of the disease and the methods used for prevention and control. Further Assistance A bibliography of key resources providing information and guidance and Advice on disease management. Wetland managers, meaning persons or agencies with an interest in the continuing existence of wetlands and in protecting them. Wetland managers can be any of a number of entities, including owners of properties that contain wetlands, staff of government agencies that have regulatory power over them, and conservation organisations with an interest in wetlands or holders of conservation interests. This Manual is particularly targeted at those wetland managers who are involved in producing or implementing wetland management plans, from the site level to the regional level. Wetland policy makers, meaning persons or agencies responsible for policy which may impact wetland sites or ecosystems. How to use this Manual Given that it is unlikely that the reader will read the entire Manual from cover to cover (indeed it is not designed for this) there is some repetition of key concepts of disease emergence, prevention and control in wetlands - this is intentional. If you are a wetland manager… We recommend that you read Chapters 1 and 2 in full, which provide an introduction to disease in wetlands and the principles of disease management in wetlands. These chapters explain the most important concepts in this Manual, namely why disease management is important, how to approach developing disease management strategies and the importance of considering disease management from an ecosystem perspective.

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The training for parents should ideally focus on  The importance of nurturing one’s children purchase 120mg sildigra amex. This could be done through regulatory interventions buy sildigra 25mg on-line; decreasing access to alcohol via increased taxes order 50mg sildigra; brief interventions for high risk drinkers purchase 50mg sildigra free shipping; regulation of unlicensed outlets, and removing outlets from residential areas; advertisement restrictions; community mobilisation; and product related strategies such as appropriate labelling. A study by Griffin and Botvin, (2011) has documented various evidence based successful approaches to dealing with youth drug abuse problems. The study reviews tried and tested approaches that include school based, family-based and community-based prevention approaches Many policies address an individual, but miss the point that many individuals exist in a family context. Literature has shown that policies that seek to strengthen families are essential in addressing the substance abuse problem. In South Africa, one single most important initiative that seeks to address a family unit as key to building an individual is the 26 Green Paper on Families. It deals with how to promote family life, and how to strengthen families and what family strengthening programmes can be pursued. Societal/Community level and Drug use campaigns At the level of society or community, interventions should ideally focus on reducing youth’s access to drugs, and modifying societal norms that promote indulgence in these substances. Regulations and stricter enforcement of laws play a key role in reducing drug abuse. Harker, at al (2008) also recommends:  Community mobilization to counter the sale of legal and illegal drugs. In 2003 the Department of Social development launched the campaign “Ke moja, I’m fine without drugs”. In line with the National Drug Master Plan, “Ke moja I’m fine without drugs” main focus is on the primary prevention. The programme further works towards the protection and upliftment of all people and communities by promoting well-being and encouraging and supporting people to take pro- health decisions. In 2010, the Department of Social Development launched an Anti-substance abuse campaign popularized through the name ‘No place for drugs in my community’. The campaign focused on awareness raising and promoting rehabilitation amongst those affected. One of the objectives of the campaign was to promote debate and action around drug abuse. The last of these was launched by the minister in 2015 under the banner ‘Vulnerable populations in emergencies’. Many of these seasonal campaigns are often overshadowed by many others from different stakeholders – which are aimed specifically at alcohol abuse. As a result of this, substance abuse, other than alcohol does not get the desired prominence. Recently, the government launched a national campaign, known as Operation Fiela/Reclaim. Operation Fiela-Reclaim is a multidisciplinary interdepartmental operation aimed at eliminating criminality and general lawlessness in communities. The ultimate objective of the 27 operation is to create a safe and secure environment for all in South Africa through the prevention and combating of various crime types and addressing the safety concerns of the citizens of the country. Although no formal evaluation of the campaign has been conducted – there is anecdotal evidence of success particularly in its other areas of focus such as confiscating counterfeit goods and unlicensed fire arms. Its focus in dealing with the criminal aspect of possession, with no specific education is another limitation. Through the ‘Be Alert’ campaign, drug awareness has been prioritized – giving information on different drugs, their effects and dangers of addiction. Several civil society organizations have also developed and implemented drug abuse related campaigns. National Youth Development Agencies has been involved in Anti-drug awareness campaign. At community level, these organizations tend to mushroom in high drug use communities, many of them emphasizing harm reduction – through promoting rehabilitation programmes. Whilst these tend to have some microsomal success – they often lack adequate support from law enforcement and exist in isolation from those aimed at addressing supply of drugs. Indeed, they are often overwhelmed by the continued supply of the drugs, resulting in addiction relapses.

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