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By Y. Irmak. Arcadia University. 2018.
The subcutaneous tissue contains no fat but does contain the involuntary dartos muscle buy benicar 20 mg. Clinical features The scrotal subcutaneous tissue is continuous with the fasciae of the abdom- inal wall and perineum and therefore extravasations of urine or blood deep to this plane will gravitate into the scrotum benicar 20 mg on-line. The scrotum is divided by a septum into right and left compartments but this septum is incomplete supe- riorly so extravasations of ﬂuid into this sac are always bilateral effective 40 mg benicar. The lax tissues of the scrotum and its dependent position cause it to ﬁll readily with oedema ﬂuid in cardiac or renal failure benicar 20 mg with mastercard. Such a condition must be carefully differentiated from extravasation or from a scrotal swelling due to a hernia or hydrocele. Testis and epididymis (Figs 89, 90) The left testis lies at a lower level than the right within the scrotum; rarely, this arrangement is reversed. Each testis is contained by a white ﬁbrous capsule, the tunica albuginea, and each is invaginated anteriorly into a double serous covering, the tunica vaginalis, just as the intestine is invagi- nated anteriorly into the peritoneum. Along the posterior border of the testis, rather to its lateral side, lies the epididymis, which is divided into an expanded head, a body and a pointed tail inferiorly. Medially, there is a distinct groove, the sinus epididymis, between it and the testis. The testis and epididymis each bear at their upper extremities a small stalked body, termed respectively the appendix testis and appendix epididymis (hydatid of Morgagni). The appendix testis is a remnant of the upper end of the paramesonephric (Müllerian) duct; the appendix epididymis is a remnant of the mesonephros. Blood supply The testicular artery arises from the aorta at the level of the renal vessels. It anastomoses with the artery to the vas, supplying the vas deferens and epi- didymis, which arises from the inferior vesical branch of the internal iliac 120 The abdomen and pelvis Fig. This cross-connection means that ligation of the testicular artery is not necessarily followed by testicular atrophy. The pampiniform plexus of veins becomes a single vessel, the testicular vein, in the region of the internal ring. On the right this drains into the inferior vena cava, on the left into the renal vein. The male genital organs 121 Lymph drainage The lymphatic drainage of the testis obeys the usual rule; it accompanies the venous drainage and thus passes to the para-aortic lymph nodes at the level of the renal vessels. Free communication occurs between the lym- phatics on either side; there is also a plentiful anastomosis with the para- aortic intrathoracic nodes and, in turn, with the cervical nodes, so that spread of malignant disease from the testis to the nodes at the root of the neck is not rare. These convey affer- ent (pain) ﬁbres—hence referred pain from the testis to the loin. Structure The testis is divided into 200–300 lobules each containing one to three semi- niferous tubules. Each tubule is some 2 feet (62cm) in length when teased out, and is thus obviously coiled and convoluted to pack away within the testis. The tubules anastomose posteriorly into a plexus termed the rete testis from which about a dozen ﬁne efferent ducts arise, pierce the tunica albuginea at the upper part of the testis and pass into the head of the epi- didymis, which is actually formed by these efferent ducts coiled within it. The efferent ducts fuse to form a considerably convoluted single tube which constitutes the body and tail of the epididymis; unravelled, it is the length of a cricket pitch. Development of the testis This is important and is the key to several features which are of clinical interest. The testis arises from a germinal ridge of mesoderm in the posterior wall of the abdomen just medial to the mesonephros (Fig. As the testis enlarges, it also undergoes a caudal migration according to the following timetable: 3rd month (of fetal life) reaches the iliac fossa; 7th month traverses the inguinal canal; 8th month reaches the external ring; 9th month descends into the scrotum. Amesenchymal strand, the gubernaculum testis, extends from the caudal end of the developing testis along the course of its descent to blend into the scrotal fascia.
Thus discount 10mg benicar fast delivery, an inactive precursor Most frequently purchase benicar 10 mg fast delivery, this process entails a or prodrug is applied purchase benicar 20mg visa, formation of the loss of biological activity and an in- active molecule occurring only after hy- crease in hydrophilicity (water solubil- drolysis in the blood buy discount benicar 40 mg line. Since rapid drug bonds, such as prilocaine, and of course, elimination improves accuracy in titrat- peptides, can be hydrolyzed by pepti- ing the therapeutic concentration, drugs dases and inactivated in this manner. Ester bonds are such links, being interest because they are responsible subject to hydrolysis by the ubiquitous for the formation of highly reactive esterases. In ited, as exemplified by the formation of Phase II (synthetic) reactions, conju- angiotensin II, whose actions inter alia gation products of either the drug itself include vasoconstriction. Angiotensin II or its Phase I metabolites are formed, for is formed from angiotensin I by cleavage instance, with glucuronic or sulfuric ac- of the C-terminal dipeptide histidylleu- id (p. Hydrolysis is catalyzed by “angio- The special case of the endogenous tensin-converting enzyme” (ACE). Acetylcholine is broken down at its graded by angiotensinase A, which clips sites of release and action by acetylchol- off the N-terminal asparagine residue. The local anesthetic, procaine, is a case in point; it exerts its action at the site of application while being largely devoid of undesirable effects at other lo- cations because it is inactivated by hy- drolysis during absorption from its site of application. Ester hydrolysis does not invariably lead to inactive metabolites, as exempli- fied by acetylsalicylic acid. In certain cases, drugs are administered in the form of esters in order to facilitate absorption (enalapril! Drug Elimination 35 Esterases Ester Peptidases Amides Anilides Acetylcholine Converting enzyme Acetic acid Choline Procaine Angiotensinase p-Aminobenzoic acid Diethylaminoethanol Acetylsalicylic acid Prilocaine Acetic acid Salicylic acid N-Propylalanine Toluidine A. Examples of chemical reactions in drug biotransformation (hydrolysis) Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Hy- a hydroxylamine that then decomposes droxylations may involve alkyl substitu- into ammonia and the corresponding ents (e. In both an alcohol and partly oxidized to a car- cases, products are formed that are con- boxylic acid. Benzene, active glucocorticoids cortisol and pred- polycyclic aromatic compounds (e. N-reductions oc- benzopyrene), and unsaturated cyclic cur in azo- or nitro-compounds (e. Nitro groups can be reduced mono-oxygenases to epoxides, highly to amine groups via nitroso and hydrox- reactive electrophiles that are hepato- ylamino intermediates. In the case of primary or secon- Methylations are catalyzed by a dary amines, dealkylation of an alkyl family of relatively specific methyl- group starts at the carbon adjacent to transferases involving the transfer of the nitrogen; in the case of tertiary methyl groups to hydroxyl groups (O- amines, with hydroxylation of the nitro- methylation as in norepinephrine [nor- gen (e. The intermediary adrenaline]) or to amino groups (N- products are labile and break up into the methylation of norepinephrine, hista- dealkylated amine and aldehyde of the mine, or serotonin). O-dealkylation In thio compounds, desulfuration results from substitution of sulfur by oxygen (e. This example O2 again illustrates that biotransformation is not always to be equated with bio- R1 inactivation. Thus, paraoxon (E600) formed in the organism from parathion N (E605) is the actual active agent (p. Drug Elimination 37 Propranolol Pentobarbital Hydroxylation Lidocaine Phenacetin Parathion N-Dealkylation O-Dealkylation Desulfuration Dealkylation Norepinephrine S-Dealkylation O-Methylation Azathioprine Methylation Nitrazepam Benzpyrene Chlorpromazine Acetaminophen Sulfoxidation Epoxidation Hydroxyl- amine Reduction Oxidation A. Examples of chemical reactions in drug biotransformation Lüllmann, Color Atlas of Pharmacology © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. The conju- and deacetylated bisacodyl, respective- gates are acids, as in the case of glucuro- ly) or to other organic acids. In this respect, they differ from body fluids, these acids are predomi- conjugates formed by acetyltransfe- nantly ionized; the negative charge con- rases from activated acetate (acetyl- fers high polarity upon the conjugated coenzyme A) and an alcohol or a phenol. The conjugated conjugation of the amino acids glycine products may pass from hepatocyte into or glutamine with carboxylic acids. In biliary fluid and from there back into these cases, an amide bond is formed the intestine. O-glucuronides can be between the carboxyl groups of the ac- cleaved by bacterial! Glucuronides with a molecular weight (MW) > 300 preferentially pass into the blood, while those with MW > 300 enter the bile to a larger extent.
The effects of manipulation alone could not be isolated in this study order benicar 10 mg with mastercard, because it was part of a program that employed several interventions buy cheap benicar 10 mg on-line. Manipulation for chronic low back pain There have been fewer studies examining the effects of spinal manipulation for patients 52 with subacute and chronic back pain than for acute back pain discount 40 mg benicar mastercard. Gibson and co-workers failed to show any significant effect in patients undergoing osteopathic manipulation benicar 40 mg line, 53 although Waagen and co-workers showed a statistical benefit from manipulation in patients with recurrent or chronic low back pain 2 weeks post-treatment. In a crossover clinical trial using patients as their 54 own controls, Evans and colleagues showed improvement in chronic back pain in patients receiving manipulation and analgesics versus those treated with analgesics alone. Both groups had improved significantly over baseline at the 1-year follow-up in terms of pain and disability, although the effect of manipulation alone could not be 56 established from this study. Triano and colleagues compared the use of spinal manipulation with a back education program in patients with chronic low back pain and noted greater improvement in pain and activity tolerance in the manipulation group. These included 5 weeks of manipulation plus trunk strengthening exercises, a similar duration of manipulation and trunk-stretching exercises or supervised trunk exercises plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) followed by an additional 6 weeks of supervised exercise alone. Each of the three groups showed clinically important improvement, and there appeared to be a sustained reduction in medication use at the 1-year follow-up period in the manipulation and therapeutic strengthening exercise group. Outcome measures included severity of the main complaint, global perceived effect, pain and functional status. After 3 months, patients treated by manual therapists and physical therapists reported greater improvement in pain and disability than the other two groups. In follow-up evaluation 1-year post-treatment, improvement in pain and functioning was significantly greater in the manual therapy group than the physical 58 therapy group. In an extension of this study, the authors reported the greatest relative benefit for manual therapy in those patients with chronic conditions (i. Complementary therapies in neurology 300 59 More recently, Giles and Muller randomized 77 patients with chronic (>13 weeks) spinal pain syndromes to one of three treatment groups: spinal manipulation; needle acupuncture; or NSAIDs. Outcome measures included disability (Oswestry Back Pain Index) and pain (Visual Analog Scale), and were measured at baseline and 4 weeks. After a median intervention period of 30 days, spinal manipulation was the only intervention to achieve statistically significant improvement over baseline. Pain reduction was 50% for low back pain, 33% for neck pain and 46% for upper back pain, while disability decreased 30. They found two high- quality studies that included a placebo arm, both of which reported an advantage for manipulation. They also identified eight studies comparing manipulation with various other treatments, with five of these showing an advantage for spinal manipulation. In none of the studies reviewed did the group treated with manipulation fare worse than those with a comparison treatment. They concluded that there was strong evidence to suggest that manipulation is more effective than placebo for chronic low back pain and moderate evidence that it is more effective than bedrest, massage or medical care as 33 usual. This conclusion is similar to that arrived at by Bronfort, who also conducted a systematic review of the literature of manipulation for spinal pain. They reviewed nine studies, and pooled data from two placebo controlled trials and two comparative trials (with NSAIDs) in their data analysis. At a 1-month time point, they were able to show that manipulation had a statistically significant benefit when compared to placebo in terms of pain, and in comparison to NSAIDs in terms of disability (but not pain). Despite this statistical advantage, however, the authors gave the opinion that the difference was too small to be clinically meaningful. Another systematic review of the 62 literature by Koes and associates identified eight studies of spinal manipulation for patients with subacute or chronic low back pain, five reported positive results, two reported negative results and one had no conclusion. Overall, the methodological quality of the trials reviewed was low and this group of authors did not feel justified in concluding a benefit for spinal manipulation. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SDU) recently 63 published an evidence-based review on back and neck pain. Their goal was to review the literature and formulate recommendations on surgical, psychological and conservative (including manipulation) care of the spine. In their evaluation of spinal manipulation for chronic back pain, they concluded that there was strong evidence for effectiveness of manual treatment/ manipulation in these patients. The majority of the literature regarding manipulation for low back pain deals with uncomplicated pain of suspected mechanical origin.
We found for both grating sets cheap 40mg benicar visa, that initial difference limens were much higher discount 10mg benicar visa, learning effects were larger benicar 40 mg on-line, and learning was slower when the subjects were completely task-naïve compared to when they had already been trained on one ﬁnger cheap benicar 40 mg mastercard. The transfer of learning between ﬁngers was generally substantial and com- plete in some instances. Similar results were obtained for another task; discrimination of the orientation of hand-held gratings applied to the passive ﬁngerpad78 in which the performance measure was the groove width permitting threshold discrimination of a 90˚ difference in grating orientation. This ﬁnding suggested that inter-digit transfer in the ﬁrst grating experiment was not simply because active motion was used. As an aside, the grating orientation test provides a highly reliable index of tactile spatial acuity. That a high propensity for perceptual learning effects to transfer between ﬁngers is characteristic of the tactile system and not restricted to tasks using gratings was shown in a subsequent study from our laboratory. The subjects had to distinguish between a pattern with the offset and one without. This is a hyperacuity task because the offset was 1 mm or less, and the limit of tactile spatial acuity (resolution) at the ﬁngerpad is about 1 mm,34,86 which corresponds to the spacing of the relevant mechanoreceptors,. This task was originally used in studies of vision90 and later adapted to studies of touch. Learning was measured in terms of decrease in the magnitude of spatial offset required for reliable offset detection. Our subjects demonstrated virtually complete transfer of perceptual learning effects between ﬁngers of either hand. In this variant of the task, the offset was held constant (at 2 mm, well outside the hyperacuity range) and learning was measured as a decline in the stimulus duration required for reliable spatial discrimination. This study also precisely controlled stimulus amplitude and duration using an electromechanical stimulator. Thus, training on discrimination of the duration of the interval between two vibrotactile stimuli was found to generalize between hands. One group, studying within session learning effects, found no transfer beyond the trained ﬁnger for vibratory frequency discrimination but a topographic gradient of transfer in two other tasks: discriminating the pressure of a punctate stimulus and discriminating surface roughness. Perhaps, in humans, a restricted transfer pattern emerges in a single session and then generalizes between sessions. It is well established that perceptual learning effects in the visual system require both time and sleep between sessions for proper consolidation. Our results in the tactile system are clearly at odds with a large number of studies in vision which have found, in a variety of tasks, that perceptual learning effects are quite speciﬁc for the retinal location of the visual stimulus used for training. However, the degree of location and orientation-speciﬁcity of visual learning in orientation pop out detection increases with increasing task difﬁculty; moreover, a single, prolonged exposure to the stimulus abolishes speciﬁcity. We investigated this by conducting an experiment with a difﬁcult version of the grating discrimination task,9 using gratings that varied in ridge width because they are more difﬁcult to discriminate than those varying in groove width. We maximized task difﬁculty by using only a subset of gratings with small differences in ridge width rather than following the usual progression from large to small differences. These methodological changes did make learning more difﬁcult, as evidenced by our having to reject many more subjects than in the previous study, because they did not improve their performance even after a number of sessions. Yet perceptual learning effects still transferred substantially from the right (initially trained) hand to the left hand, as evidenced by lower initial thresholds and faster improvement on the left hand. Inter-manual transfer was complete in some subjects, where initial thresholds on the left hand equaled ﬁnal thresholds on the right hand. Note that in this study9 and in previous studies, intrinsic asymmetry cannot account for the results because there were no signiﬁcant inter-manual differences in ﬁnal thresh- old. This ﬁts with previous reports that manual asymmetries in normal tactile performance are absent or minor. Hence, there might be a genuine difference between the tactile and visual systems in the transfer of perceptual learning effects between locations.
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